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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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The 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference

Twenty-five years after the Non-Prolfieration Treaty (NPT) came into force in 1970, parties to the treaty met to decide if the NPT "shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods." This collection contains documents obtained for a 2018 Critical Oral History Conference held in Rotterdam as well as oral history interviews conducted by Dr. Michal Onderco (Erasmus University Rotterdam). See also the Non-Proliferation Treaty collection. [Image: Opening of the Review and Exchange conference on April 17, 1995. Left-to-right, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali; Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala (Sri Lanka), President of the Conference; and Prvoslav Davinic, Secretary-General of the Conference.]

  • January 14, 1994

    German Federal Foreign Office, 'British Invitation to the Western Coordination Meeting on 14 January 1994 at the Canadian UN Mission and British Paper on Options and Modalities of NPT Extension'

    Copy of a UK paper summarizing NPT extension options and their implications.

  • June 07, 1994

    Note, Greek Presidency of the Council on Working Group on Non-Proliferation of the European Union

    In 1994, the European Union decided for the first time to play a role in the NPT Review Conference, with a view towards the NPT Review and Extension Conference in 1995. This note stipulated that the EU should demonstrate consensus in support of extending the NPT and persuading non-members to join the treaty.

  • July 07, 1994

    Minutes of the Meeting of the Working Group on Non-Proliferation of the European Union

    In a meeting, the Working Group started to develop the wording of the Council Decision on the NPT Review and Extension Conference in 1995

  • July 19, 1994

    Council of the European Union, 'Joint Action Regarding Preparation for the 1995 Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'

    The EU Working Group on Non-Proliferation developed the first draft what later became the Council Decision 94/509/CFSP. The draft identified three decisions: to convince states outside the Treaty to join it; to encourage participation in the remaining Preparatory Committee meetings;and to build consensus for indefinite extension. The proposal was a so-called “A” Item, meaning that the Foreign Ministers would not even discuss it; they only were to approve it.

  • July 25, 1994

    Decision, Council of the European Union, 'Concerning the Joint Action Adopted by the Council... Regarding Preparation for the 1995 Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'

    The Council of the European Union votes to extend the NPT indefinitely.

  • September 15, 1994

    Preparatory Committee for the 1995 Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 'European Union (EU): NPT Extension Options and Modalities'

    European Union document on legal aspects in connection with the NPT.

  • October, 1994

    Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation (PPNN) International Seminar on Issues at the 1995 NPT Conference, 'Preparations for the Conference' by Ben Sanders

    An overview of the administrative structure of the NPT review conference and the preparatory work leading up to it, as well as potential procedural problems which have not yet been solved.

  • December 27, 1994

    South African Legal Opinion on Article X.2 of the NPT

    Legal analysis of Article X.2, which states that after 25 years the treaty takes force (in 1970), treaty members will hold a conference to determine if the NPT will be extended indefinitely or for an additional fixed period(s).

  • 1995

    Cartoons drawn by Carlton Stoiber at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference

    Drawings of "Del the wonder dog" at the 1995 NPT conference.

  • January 24, 1995

    Preparatory Committee for the 1995 Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 'Indonesia: working paper on the extension of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Options and Action Available'

    The Group of Non-Aligned and Other States presents a short working paper summarizing Article X.2 and the available options for extending the NPT.

  • February 08, 1995

    German Bundestag, 13th Legislative Period, Proposal for 'Indefinite and Unconditional Extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty'

    Proposal for extension of NPT and related steps for the German federal government to take to support non-proliferation.

  • February 13, 1995

    German Federal Foreign Office, Wire Report, 'NPT Review and Extension Conference: Meeting of the Core Group on 10 February 1995'

    Summary of meeting and different countries' positions at the review conference.

  • March 22, 1995

    German Federal Foreign Office, Wire Report, 'NPT Review and Extension Conference: Meeting of the Core Group on 20/21 March 1995'

    Summary of meeting of the core group, statomg "these meetings make it fully clear that now thanks to the lobbying activities of many countries an increasing majority of member states who are for the indefinite extension of the npt appears possible."

  • April 06, 1995

    German Federal Foreign Office, Memorandum, 'NPT Extension Conference: Positions of State Parties'

    German Foreign Ministry index listing all of the NPT countries and their positions on extending the treaty.

  • April 17, 1995

    Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation, NPT Conference 17/4/95-12/5/95, 'Darryl’s meeting with Sven Jurchewsky [sic] 145/95'

    Summary of meeting with Canadian diplomat Sven Jurschewsky about strategy for the NPT review confernece.

  • April 18, 1995

    1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Final Document, Summary and Verbal Records (excerpts)

    Opening statements in the General Debate by Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, United Kingdom, United States, Russia, South Africa, The Netherlands.

  • April 27, 1995

    Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Countries, 'Result of the Exchange of Views on the Review and Extension Conference on the NPT'

    The Ministers of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Countries agreed that the NPT should be extended and a regular review conference held every five years.

  • June 15, 1995

    German Bundestag, 12th Legislative Period, 'Printed Matter 12/5116--Resolution Recommendation and Report of the Foreign Relations Committee (3rd Committee)'

    Resolution for the extension of the Non-proliferation Treaty and setting goals for NPT policy.

  • June 29, 1995

    German Bundestag, 13th Legislative Period, 'Response of the Federal Government to the Small Inquiry of the SPD faction—Printed Matter 13/1455—Strengthening the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'

    Review of steps taken by the German federal government to limit proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  • 2002

    Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 'Decisions and Resolutions Adopted at the 1995 NPT review and Extension Conference'

    Final decisions made at the NPT review conference.