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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Non-Prolfieration Treaty (NPT) is an international treaty developed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons technology. Between 1965 and 1968, the treaty was negotiated by the United Nation's Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament. The treaty was first opened for signatures in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. See also the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference collection. [Image: US Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson signs the NPT as Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko watches in Moscow, Russia, on July 1, 1968.]

  • May 30, 1967

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on the India's Objectives Regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri M. C. Chagla, on the government's goals for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • September 13, 1967

    European Commission to the Council of Ministers on the Russian Draft of Article III of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    This memo to the Council of Ministers from the Euratom Commission examines the Russian draft of Article III of the NPT. It draws attention to the gradual convergence of Russian and American positions on the control clauses of the Treaty.

  • October 04, 1967

    Minutes of the Fortieth Session of the Brazilian National Security Council

    Guidelines for the Brazilian nuclear policy in Costa e Silva’s government (1967-1969) and defines the diplomatic attitude of Brazil regarding the negotiations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). During the meeting of the National Security Council, participants agreed on the need to cooperate with another country to start a national nuclear program. On the NPT negotiations, the members of the National Security Council agreed to establish a condition to adhere to the Treaty: the defense of the right to develop peaceful nuclear explosions. Several ministers defended the possibility of using nuclear energy in the future for international security reasons.

  • October 05, 1967

    Aide-Memoire to Commissioner Martino by Robert Schaetzel, 'Article III of the Non-Proliferation Treaty'

    This memorandum to Commissioner Martino from Ambassador Schaetzel accepts the Soviet Draft Article III as he believes it will permit non-nuclear Euratom countries to negotiate collectively with the IAEA and permit a satisfactory verification concept.

  • October 09, 1967

    Note on the American Aide-Memoire on Article III of the Non-Proliferatoin Treaty

    This note describes an American memo detailing the Soviet project to create an Article III in the Nonproliferation Treaty Note.

  • October 10, 1967

    European Commission, 'Exchange of Views on the Problems Posed by the Draft Treaty of Non-Proliferation'

    This memo to the Euratom Commission detailed the reaction of the Council of Minister on the problems in the proposed non-proliferation treaty.

  • November 13, 1967

    Aide-Mémoire on the Non-Proliferation Treaty Distributed by the US Committee for Euratom Commission

    Checklist of topics covered in discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union on Article III of the Nonproliferation Treaty.

  • November 21, 1967

    Rajya Sabha Debate on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    Transcript of debate between members of Rajya Sabha on the Non-Proliferation Treaty draft presented by the United States and the U.S.S.R. to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva. Contents, government reaction, and India's nuclear aspirations are discussed.

  • January, 1968

    Jan Gijssels, 'Euratom and the Draft Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons in Terms of Law'

    This article by Jan Gijssels discusses the legal implications of Euratom and the proposed Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • January 18, 1968

    Presentation to the Institute of International Law Gottingen University by Felix Oboussier, 'Potential Impacts of Non-Proliferation Treaty Draft on the Euratom Treaty'

    This presentation, given by Felix Oboussier, discusses the potential impacts the NPT may have on the Euratom Treaty. He concludes that a definitive opinion on the whether or not the requirements and objections of non-nuclear member states have been fully taken into account seems premature.

  • February 15, 1968

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on the Progression of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri B. R. Bhagat, on the progress that has been made in the finalization of the draft of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • April 09, 1968

    Excerpts from Andrei A. Gromyko’s speech at the April 1968 Plenum of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party

    Gromyko discusses negotiations over the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • April 09, 1968

    Excerpts from Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev’s speech at the April 1968 Plenum of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party

    Brezhnev discusses negotiations with the United States over the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • July 25, 1968

    Rajya Sabha Extended Debate on the Non-Proliferation Treaty Draft

    Transcript of debate between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of State in the Ministry if External Affairs, Shri B. R. Bhagat, on the Non-Proliferation Treaty and why India has chose not to sign.

  • August 21, 1968

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on the results of Indian President Zakir Hussain's visit to Moscow, including discussion of Soviet-Indian relations broadly and India's relations with Pakistan, as well as on Soviet efforts to pressure India to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

  • September 19, 1968

    MAE Memo on Italian Initiative to review IAEA Statute

    MAE Memo on the Italian proposal to amend the composition of the IAEA Board of Governors. Considerations by ambs. Ducci and Gaja and prof. Carlo Salvetti

  • September 20, 1968

    MAE Memo on Italian Initiative to review IAEA Statute

    MAE Memo on Italian initiative for securing the revision of art. 6 of the IAEA Statute in order to allow Italy's permanent inclusion, as a civil nuclear power, in the Board of Governors.

  • September 20, 1968

    MAE Memorandum, 'Conference of Non-Nuclear Countries'

    Memo by MAE DAP on Non-nuclear countries conference held in Geneva. The paper addresses Italy's aims and discusses the need to deal with the potentially adverse impact of the NPT.

  • October 28, 1968

    MAE Cable on IAEA Conference: Political Considerations

    Report and political analysis by amb. Ducci on the IAEA Conference. The paper discusses the draft resolution presented by Italy, US reaction , USSR attitude, as well as the position of other delegations.

  • February 17, 1969

    Telephone Conversation Transcript, Henry Kissinger and William P. Rogers

    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee was reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty for ratification and its chairman, J. William Fulbright (D-Ark), wanted to know where Israel stood on the Treaty. Believing that the issue should be handled at the White House level, Rogers proposed a meeting with Kissinger, Laird, and CIA director Richard Helms. Agreeing to schedule a meeting, Kissinger acknowledged that the issue was also “political.”