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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Non-Prolfieration Treaty (NPT) is an international treaty developed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons technology. Between 1965 and 1968, the treaty was negotiated by the United Nation's Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament. The treaty was first opened for signatures in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. See also the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference collection. [Image: US Ambassador Llewellyn E. Thompson signs the NPT as Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko watches in Moscow, Russia, on July 1, 1968.]

  • March 13, 1969

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on the Reaction of Nuclear Powers to India's Refusal to Sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in its Present Form

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, on the reaction of larger powers to India's attitude and refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in its present form.

  • March 29, 1969

    Memorandum from Ralph Earle, Office of International Security Affairs, 'Stopping the Introduction of Nuclear Weapons Into the Middle East'

    This memo provided Laird with a scheme for a tough approach to Israel that involved a demarche to the Israeli government for “cease-and-desist” certain nuclear and missile [excised] activities and a demand for private assurances and, ultimately, Israel’s signature on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). To seal such a deal Earle proposed an exchange of letters between President Richard Nixon and Prime Minister Golda Meir, for which he provided drafts.

  • May 30, 1969

    John P. Walsh, State Department Executive Secretary to Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, 'Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program—NSSM 40'

    This may well be the only formal written interagency response to NSSM 40.The State Department and the Defense Department agreed that Israel should sign the NPT and provide assurances not to produce nuclear weapons, but they disagreed on what should be done to get there.

  • July 10, 1969

    Cable No. 2124, Ambassador Shimoda to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 'Issues concerning the Signing of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Opinion Statement)

    Ambassador Shimoda cautions that Japan's signing of the NPT still "requires further consideration from a long-term perspective."

  • July 14, 1969

    Memorandum from Deputy Secretary of Defense, 'Israeli Nuclear Program,' with 'Scenario for Discussions with Israelis on their Nuclear Program, and NSSM 40'

    Packard's plan detailed in this memorandum and its attachments allegedly represented a consensus of the Defense leadership, Kissinger, Richardson, and Helms. Using a tough approach, the memorandum's enclosed plan focused on getting Israelis assurances and signature on the NPTs.

  • July 19, 1969

    Memorandum from Henry Kissinger to President Nixon, 'Israeli Nuclear Program'

    The memorandum lays out substantive and significant line of thinking about the complex problem raised by the Israeli nuclear program. Kissinger thought it might be possible to persuade the Israelis that with all of the NPT’s loopholes signing it would not prevent them from continuing their weapons research and development. Kissinger also recognized the real possibility that the Israeli development momentum could not be stopped.

  • October 16, 1969

    Disarmament Office, United Nations Bureau, Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'How Our Claim was Incorporated into the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    The Japanese Foreign Ministry outlines areas of where Japan's views and positions are evident in the final text of the NPT, including the sections on disarmament, the security of non-nuclear weapon states, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and procedural issues.

  • November 12, 1969

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    The Hungarian Ambassador in the DPRK discusses with Soviet officials Soviet-DPRK relations and Korea's stance on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • April, 1971

    Telegram from V.G. Joshi, 'Brief on Disarmament and Atomic-Free Zones for the Spring Meetings of the IPU to be held during April, 1971'

    Summary of history of negotiations of disarmament and nuclear-free zones.

  • July 03, 1974

    Note from CSMD to MD on Italian ratification of the NPT

    Note by CSMD suggesting to postpone ratification of NPT in light of the destabilizing effects generated by the Indian nuclear test.

  • August 30, 1974

    United Nations Bureau, Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'Outline of Arguments For and Against Japan’s NPT Ratification

    A table outlining the various arguments for and against Japan's ratification of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • September 02, 1974

    MAE Report on Indian Nuclear Explosion

    Report by Italy's delegation to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva on the impact on the NPT of the Indian nuclear explosion, on the problem of the credibility and adaptation of the treaty to the new international situation. Includes suggestions for proposals by the Italian government concerning how to update the Treaty.

  • January, 1975

    On Japan's Ratification of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    An internal record evaluating the arguments in favor of Japan's ratification of the NPT.

  • April 08, 1975

    First North America Division, American Affairs Bureau, Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'Foreign Minister Miyazawa-Secretary of State Kissinger: Talking Points and Background Material' (Excerpts)

    Talking points on the NPT prepared for a meeting between the Japanese Foreign Minister and Henry Kissinger.

  • April 08, 1975

    Disarmament Office, United Nations Bureau, Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'The NPT Issue (Views of LDP leaders)

    The Office of the Disarmament Affairs summarizes the views of several leading LDP personalities (Matsuno, Nakasone, and Shiina) on the NPT.

  • April 14, 1975

    Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'Opening Statement regarding the Minister for Foreign Affairs Miyazawa’s Visit to the United States'

    A brief summary of Miyazawa's meeting with Kissinger.

  • April 14, 1975

    Disarmament Office, United Nations Bureau, Japanese Foreign Ministry, 'NPT Issue (Briefing of Minister Miyazawa’s Visit to the United States to Directors of Concerned Divisions of the Liberal Democratic Party)

    A summary of a meeting between Foreign Minister Miyazawa and several leading officials from the Liberal Democratic Party regarding Japan's ratification of the NPT.

  • June 30, 1976

    MAE Cable on Italian Ratification of the NPT

    Memo by ambassador to the UK R. on disagreement by the British government over the Italian interpretation of art. 1 and 2 of the NPT regarding PNE (Peaceful Nuclear Explosion).

  • August 14, 1976

    MAE Report on Italian Ratification of the NPT

    Analysis by MAE litigation service on the scope and legal relevance of the reaction by depositary states and Australia to the Italian declaration of May 4 1975on the issue of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices.

  • October 10, 1988

    Report by Military Intelligence on Nuclear Proliferation

    Report by SISMI (Military Intelligence) on the state of missile proliferation: programs and production capabilities of developing countries, analysis of countries that started autonomous missile programs. The paper also addresses the issue of possible indiscriminate diffusion of Chinese missile technology and components on the international market. Annex: Summary table.