Archivio Andreotti's NATO Series
Giulio Andreotti (Rome, 1919-2013) was one of the most important figures in Italian politics after the Second World War. This collection, drawn from Andreotti's papers held by the Istituto Luigi Sturzo, features letters, telegrams, reports, notes, and memoranda written by officials from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE) and the Ministry of Defense and various Italian Ambassadors and diplomatic advisers. The materials are broadly related to NATO affairs and include dossiers prepared by MAE officials for the sessions of North Atlantic Council, special meetings of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs or Ministers of Defense, Andreotti’s visits abroad, and visits of important international leaders in Italy. The materials were selected and described by Dr. Lodovica Clavarino as part of a joint Wilson Center-Roma Tre University-Istituto Sturzo project. For further information, see the introduction by Leopoldo Nuti and Lodovica Clavarino, "The Giulio Andreotti Archive: A First-Hand Account of NATO." Image: North Atlantic Council Meeting, Lisbon, June 1985. From left: Carrington, Andreotti, Romano. Source: Istituto Luigi Sturzo, Busta 170_fascicolo 74_1985. Reproduction of this image without the prior authorization of the Istituto Luigi Sturzo is prohibited. All commercial use is forbidden.
April 29, 1964
Briefing by Permanent Representative to NATO, 'Multilateral Force Project'
" The document is part of a broad quantity of material prepared by the Italian Permanent Delegation at the Atlantic Council in Paris, and forwarded from Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense). It is a group of several briefings (8 in total), drafted by the RICA, in view of the next Atlantic Council meeting at ministerial level, which will take place in L'Aja. The briefings are divided according to the topics that will be addressed in that meeting. This document sums up the state of the negotiations for a Multilateral Force. The negotiations are now in their 7°month. Here there is a focus on Italy's position, which puts Italy in its current state of isolation with regards to this project. The document presents various reflections about the future prospects of this project."
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'NATO's nuclear weapons'
The memo deals with the reorganization of political control and of the "command chain" with respect to NATO's nuclear deterrent (opinions of the UK and France, Italian and German criticism). There are 3 attachments: 1) Multilateral Nuclear Force. Italian stance with regards to British proposals (2 pages); 2) British position on Multilateral Force - Message from Washington on 4th December (5 pages); 3) Reorganization of the Atlantic nuclear deterrent (12 pages).
November 21, 1964
Telespresso by Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Ministry of Defense, 'Multilateral Nuclear Force. British proposals'
The document consists of the transcript of what has been told to the Italian Embassy in London (Cattani), November 20th about British remarks with regard to Atlantic Nuclear Force project. The document describes the features of the project, reports the disadvantages that could derive from the proposal and the British doubts about that. In addition, the document underlines the goals and the features that - from the Italian point of view - the MLF project could and should have.
November 28, 1964
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'The project of a global reorganization of the Atlantic Alliance's nuclear deterrent'
The project to which the document is related concerns only the strategic nuclear weapons, leaving instead the tactical ones under the specific territorial systems of control. The present document is about the components, political control and the NATO command.
March 12, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini
The report examines the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance and the uncertainty of the current phase, which consists of forces not always appropriate to its cohesion. Alessandrini analyzes both the transformations in the international context and those inside NATO, the issue of political, economic and military consultation, the debate about the multilateral force and ANF. The conclusion underlines - despite all the current problems - the positive results of the history of NATO, an alliance that represents to date not only the deterrence against possible Soviet threats, but also the most important interlocutor in an eventual East-West dialogue.
April 26, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Nuclear Problems'
The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to nuclear problems, the document hopes for a gradual way out from NATO's current paralysis, through a process of integration, rather then the attempt to solve also these problems by mere coordination among the Allies.
April 26, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Defense Planning'
The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to the Defense Planning, Italy claims (together with Germany) that it is absolutely indispensable to have available a well-balanced both conventional and nuclear arsenal, to preserve the SACEUR's credibility, on a political level too.
May 31, 1965
Draft Telegram to Italian Embassies and Permanent Representative to NATO
The telegram announces that the Italian government welcomes MacNamara's proposal of establishing a restricted Atlantic Nuclear Committee. This proposal is in the context of a necessary widening of the Atlantic nuclear responsibilities that now are concentrated in Washington.
June 02, 1965
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Atlantic Nuclear Committee'
The note describes the proposal made by MacNamara as the most recent element of the US political-strategic thinking. The document explains MacNamara's proposal from its origins to the current situation. The document analyzes the position of various countries, with a focus on the Italian one and some points which still need to be sorted out. Italy seems interested in participating in the proposed Committee.
June 10, 1965
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Fanfani; forwarded to Minister of Defense Andreotti
The report concerns the meeting of Ministers of Defense - recently held in Paris - and the various topics addressed within (strategy of defense, long-term planning, "selected committee").
October 13, 1965
Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special committee proposed by MacNamara'
The note is about MacNamara's proposal to establish a Special Committee in order to broaden Allies' participation in the strategic planning of US nuclear deterrent and to reach a more efficient process of political consultation. The document outlines some points related to Italy's position.
November 22, 1965
Message by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee meeting, 27th November - Conversation with Cleveland '
Alessandrini reports a personal conversation with Cleveland, concerning the forthcoming meeting of the Committee of Ministers of Defense of the Alliance, recently proposed by MacNamara. Italy's position should be considered positively because it seems flexible and well-balanced.
December 01, 1965
Report, 'Use of nuclear weapons'
The document is a detailed analysis about the possible use of NATO's nuclear weapons, in preparation for the Atlantic Council's December session. The French participation in the Council and the French opposition to any nuclear integration will probably leave this issue without a solution. From their point of view, the US and the Select Committee recently proposed by them should try to overcome the hindrance represented by France, at the same time without jeopardizing the cohesion of the Alliance.
December 29, 1965
Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'
The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.
December 29, 1965
Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'Special Committee. Working group for the planning'
The note outlines the Italian policy with regards to the activities of the Working group on planning, of which Italy is a part together with the US, the UK, Germany and Turkey.
February 20, 1966
Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Planning Working Group of the "Special Committee" (Washington, 17th-18th February, 1966), with a letter from Andrea Cagiati'
Cagiati sends Andreotti a report about the meeting in Washington, which concluded Giulio Andreotti's period as Minister of Defense. Cagiati thanks Andreotti for his work, that made sure that "in this period the relationship between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense has been strong and efficient like never before". The report describes the meeting (the first meeting of this working group) and the viewpoints of the participants, with special attention payed to the US nuclear policy. The document describes also the fields which require further investigations by the Working Group. There are Cagiati's personal reflections too.
April 30, 1966
Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Special Committee. Meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense (London, 28th-29th April 1966)'
The report describes the second meeting of the Nuclear Planning Working Group at the level of Ministers of Defense, during which a discussion about the planning, the use and the political control of tactical nuclear weapons has taken place. The document analyzes the SACEUR's position, the data related to the opposing armed forces existing in the European theater; the possible hypothesis of local conflicts and the problems related to the various scenarios. The London meeting was "open-ended", without leading to any concrete decision, and the topic appeared more complex than expected. The document observes that within the NATO there are diverging opinions on these matters.