Archivio Andreotti's NATO Series
Giulio Andreotti (Rome, 1919-2013) was one of the most important figures in Italian politics after the Second World War. This collection, drawn from Andreotti's papers held by the Istituto Luigi Sturzo, features letters, telegrams, reports, notes, and memoranda written by officials from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE) and the Ministry of Defense and various Italian Ambassadors and diplomatic advisers. The materials are broadly related to NATO affairs and include dossiers prepared by MAE officials for the sessions of North Atlantic Council, special meetings of NATO Ministers of Foreign Affairs or Ministers of Defense, Andreotti’s visits abroad, and visits of important international leaders in Italy. The materials were selected and described by Dr. Lodovica Clavarino as part of a joint Wilson Center-Roma Tre University-Istituto Sturzo project. For further information, see the introduction by Leopoldo Nuti and Lodovica Clavarino, "The Giulio Andreotti Archive: A First-Hand Account of NATO." Image: North Atlantic Council Meeting, Lisbon, June 1985. From left: Carrington, Andreotti, Romano. Source: Istituto Luigi Sturzo, Busta 170_fascicolo 74_1985. Reproduction of this image without the prior authorization of the Istituto Luigi Sturzo is prohibited. All commercial use is forbidden.
July 28, 1966
Letter by Andrea Cagiati of Directorate General for Political Affairs and Security (DGAP) to Andreotti
The Diplomatic Adviser Andrea Cagiati - after 4 years of service in NATO - will be moved to Madrid and he sends Andreotti the following: 1) his personal opinions with regards to the meeting recently held in Paris by the MacNamara Committee (document dated 29th July 1966); 2) a note titled "Special MacNamara Committee" - Paris meeting (26th July 1966), dated 28th July, which reports the evolution of the discussions. The recent meeting highlights a difference of approach with regards to the extent and the tasks that face the new committee. The document analyzes the issue of nuclear sharing from both a military-political and a psychological side and the main NATO countries' positions.
September 29, 1967
Report, 'Nuclear Planning Group's decisions, meeting at ministerial level'
The document presents NPG's decisions about the topics recently discussed at a meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense just concluded (Ankara, 28th-29th September 1967). The topics addressed were: ADM, tactical nuclear weapons, ABM, national participation in the military planning with regards to nuclear issues.
October 06, 1967
General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Summary Report of the 2nd Nuclear Planning Group meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Ankara, 28-29 September 1967)'
The document reports the evolution of the meeting. Italy was there represented by the new Minister of Defense Tremelloni, the Chief of Staff Aloia, the diplomat Alessandrini (RICA) and others. Topics discussed: possible use of ADM; possible use of tactical nuclear weapons; ABM; Italian participation in military nuclear planning; information about the nuclear weapons deployed in NATO countries. Aloia believes that the discussion was fruitful, keeping in mind the complexity of the nuclear issues, that have just recently been able to count on permanent bodies appropriate to deal with them at a political level. France's negative behavior caused a postponement of the discussion about many military-political topics in the last years.
June 20, 1971
Memorandum of analysis by Roberto Ducci, 'The international situation after the Lisbon Council and some provisions that should be undertaken'
Roberto Ducci analyzes recent developments in US and Soviet foreign policies vis-à-vis Europe. He discusses the risk of US abandonment in Europe, and fragmentation of Western Europe in light of the ongoing MBFR negotiations, stating that USSR foreign policy is proving to be more capable than expected.
May 18, 1972
Speech by the Minister of Defense Franco Restivo, 'Tactical use of nuclear weapons, in see, in the Mediterranean area' (NPG, Copenhagen, May 1972)
Speech by the Minister of Defense providing an overview of the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in Copenhagen. Focuses on the problems of "when" and "why" of employment of nuclear arms in Europe.
May 24, 1972
Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff, 'Political-military considerations with regards to the ministerial meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee' (DPC), Bruxelles
The document discusses the weak state of European defence in light of the threat posed by Warsaw Pact that continues to increase its capabilities. It underlines the minimal participation and marginal role of Italy in the alliance, demanding a more meaningful financial and military contribution.
May 24, 1972
[Report on Warsaw Pact] Presentation about the information (intelligence) concerning Warsaw Pact's military potential, explained at the meeting of NATO Defence Planning Committee (Bruxelles, 24th May 1972)
This rather technical document compares the strategic capabilities (conventional and nuclear) of Warsaw Pact and NATO. The document notes that Warsaw Pact has considerably increased its capabilities catching up with the West, and raises the question about Soviet intentions, and whether continuing armament is in line with peaceful coexistence.
July 06, 1972
General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report about the meeting of NATO Defence Planning Committee at the ministerial session (Bruxelles, May 24th 1972)
Summary of the DPC meeting in Brussels where the alliance members discussed potential responses to the increasing and modernizing capabilities of the Warsaw Pact. Although US Secretary of Defense Laird highlights US commitment to its allies, Italy and other NATO members should not resort to "optimism of convenience", but fully commit to common defense.
July 18, 1972
Nuclear Planning Group, 11th meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Copenhagen, May 18th-19th 1972)
Document sent from Minister of Defense Tanassi to Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti. Topics discussed: comparison of strategic forces (NATO and USSR), studies on potential use of nuclear arms by member states, and the problems of internal consultation within NATO.
October 15, 1972
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Note, 'French military nuclear policy and its consequences for the European unification'
The note suggests that French motives for developing nuclear capabilities are political rather than based on national security considerations. France seeks to insure a key role in global political and military balance, and its behavior creates unfavorable conditions for the development of common European defense.
November 29, 1972
Letter by Italian Ambassador in Bonn, Mario Luciolli, to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Giuseppe Medici
A letter from Mario Luciolli, the Italian Ambassador to Bonn, to Foreign Minister Giuseppe Medici. Luciolli discusses problems of both conventional and nuclear defense in Western Europe, expressing concerns over the credibility of NATO's involvement on the continent and advocating for further European integration.
December 27, 1972
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Telespresso (Circular), 'Ministerial session of the Atlantic Council, 7th-8th December 1972'
Italian perspective on the NATO Council of Ministers meeting in Brussels that discussed the credibility of Western European defense. The document highlights the need for a unified and cohesive negotiation strategy among the allies.
January 04, 1973
General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the 12th meeting of the Nuclear Planning Group at a ministerial level, London 26th-27th October 1972
Document sent by Tanassi (Minister of Defense) to Andreotti (Prime Minister) on the 1973-01-04. Summary of the Nuclear Planning Group meeting in London that includes a discussion about the strategic capabilities of the two blocs, consultation procedures, and recent studies on the possible use of nuclear arms. It raises the question of extending NPG membership to include all alliance members, a suggestion met with a negative response.
January 24, 1973
General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the Ministerial Meeting of the NATO Defence Planning Committee (Bruxelles, 6th December 1972), sent by Minister of Defense Tanassi to Prime Minister Andreotti
Summary of the Defense Planning Committee discussions about the Action plan 1973-78, the problem of standardization, and the common infrastructures program of NATO. It is concluded that there is no realistic alternative to US forces in Europe, and that signs of positive change in Soviet intentions should not be trusted.
May 01, 1973
Report by Diplomatic Advisor of the Prime Minister Andrea Cagiati, 'Atlantic Declaration'
Cagiati analyzes Kissinger's speech from April 23 in light of conversations between Nixon and Andreotti. The US efforts to emphasize the importance of transatlantic relations and Europe's role in advancing democratic ideas could create an opportunity to relaunch the process of European integration.
June 27, 1973
Telegram by Ambassador Pignatti to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'US-USSR Agreement on the prevention of nuclear war'
The document describes initial reactions to the signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War in Washington. The new agreement raises concerns over the bipolar focus of US-USSR relations, NATO's traditional strategy, and poses questions related to autonomous European defense.
June 27, 1973
Telegram by Ambassador in Brussels Pignatti to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Soviet-American agreement on preventing nuclear war'
Summarizes the first comments from Min. Foreign Affairs on the agreement Soviet-American for the Prevention of Nuclear War. It is said that the philosophy of this agreement appears to have contradictions with regard to the classic strategy of NATO and diminish the credibility of the latter. Conceptions NATO military will have to be updated in light of recent agreements and ongoing trends around the Russian-American bipolarity. Just because you are at a "secondary" compared to the two supergrandi, Europeans should take the opportunity arising from this new trend to seriously address the issue of their defense. The prospect more desirable at this stage is an acceleration of proesso European unification, including the appearance of its "independent" defense.
July 06, 1973
General Staff of Defense (SMD) Summary Report of the 13th NPG Meeting held in Ankara, 15th-16th May, 1973
Summary of the 13th NPG meeting in Ankara in May 1973. Italian Minister of Defense, Tanassi, raises the issue of reviewing the process of launching nuclear weapons in order to secure the potential military and political advantages.
January 31, 1974
Letter by Permanent Representative to NATO Catalano di Melilli to Minister of Foreign Affairs Aldo Moro
Catalano di Melilli, Italy's permanent representative to NATO, writes to Foreign minister Aldo Moro about the existing confusion in the realm of international relations. He expresses concern over the process of European integration, and underlines the importance of maintaining good relations to the United States.