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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Nuclear Proliferation

Documents on the history of nuclear proliferation, the arms race, and disarmament efforts. See also the related collections in the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. (Image, US Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic missile, US Army)

  • October 23, 1985

    Ciphered Telegram No. 306, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on arguments being made in India to gain support from the Soviet Union for the Indian nuclear program. India would like to gain international prestige similar to China.

  • November, 1985

    Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate of Intelligence, Research Paper, 'Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program: Personnel and Organizations'

    This heavily excised report on the “well-educated committed cadre” that managed the Pakistani nuclear program demonstrates how the CIA protects its intelligence on Pakistani nuclear activities. This is the same version of the report that can be found on the Agency’s FOIA Web page; the recent version includes no new information. Details on Khan Research Laboratories and the gas centrifuge program are entirely withheld, but some information is made available on the Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission and the Directorate of Nuclear Fuels and Materials. The latter includes details on the status and purpose of major projects, for example, the Kundian Nuclear Complex, also known as the Chasma Reprocessing Plant, which was not completed until 1990. For the purposes of producing plutonium for weapons, the Pakistanis were interested in a heavy water moderated reactor of the NRX (National Research Experimental) type that Canada built at Chalk River. In 1985, the Pakistanis started that project in earnest, with construction beginning in 1987 of what became known as Khushab Chemical Plant II.

  • April 25, 1986

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Lengthy analysis of relations between the Soviet Union and India, covering diplomatic, military, economic, and cultural relations. Includes discussion of high-level meetings with politicians like Rajiv Gandhi and Ramaswamy Venkataraman; military supplies provided by the Soviet Union to India; and trade agreements between the two countries. Also discusses tensions caused by India's opposition to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • May 26, 1986

    Letter from President Reagan to Prime Minister Bettino Craxi

    Unofficial translation of correspondence between PM Craxi and President Reagan regarding strategic arms limitations and deterrence. Reagan outlines the planned US measures given lack of effort and willingness by the USSR to arrive to a binding agreement.

  • November 12, 1986

    Ciphered Telegram No. 342, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Information from a Soviet diplomat who states that the Soviet Union expects India to become a nuclear power soon and anticipates negative consequences for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament.

  • December 08, 1986

    Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee Resolution, on the Expiration of the Soviet Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    Draft resolution with instructions for announcing the expiration of the unilateral Soviet moratorium on nuclear testing on 1 January 1987.

  • December 08, 1986

    Proposal on the Expiration of the Unilaterial Soviet Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    Proposal to resume Soviet nuclear testing following the expiration of the USSR's unilateral moratorium on nuclear detonations on 1 January 1987. The US government continued nuclear testing throughout 1986 and did not join the Soviet moratorium. Proposes to announce the resumption of testing in December 1986 following the first American test explosion in 1987.

  • March 24, 1987

    Ciphered Telegram No. 126, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Information from a Soviet source about the potential positive results for Soviet foreign policy should India become a nuclear power.

  • August, 1987

    Memorandum, Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Memo discussing India's nuclear ambitions and position in Asia, especially in relation to China and Pakistan.

  • February 09, 1988

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Report on India's response to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty by the United States and Soviet Union. India supportive of disarmament efforts, in part because of its concerns about China and Pakistan. Describes a speech made by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi at the Six Nation Five Continent Peace Initiative summit in January at Stockholm.

  • July 21, 1988

    Ciphered Telegram No. 181, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on a visit to Moscow by Indian President Venkataraman. He asked for more military support from the Soviet Union to counterbalance Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. There were disagreements about the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

  • November 10, 1988

    Ciphered Telegram No. 320, Embassy of Hungary in India to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on plans for Mikhail Gorbachev's visit to India. The Soviet Union may offer more advanced military supplies to India. Talks are already underway for Soviet assistance to India's nuclear energy industry.

  • February 01, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 19, Embassy of Hungary in the Soviet Union to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Lengthy report on India's current domestic and foreign policies. Includes discussion of India's upcoming parliamentary elections and preparations by Rajiv Gandhi and the Congress Party. Foreign relations in Asia with countries such as China, Cambodia, and Afghanistan are discussed, as well as India's involvement in disarmament talks through the Six Nation Five Continent Peace Initiative. Lastly, India's relationship with the Soviet Union in foreign policy and trade is described.

  • February 13, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 41, Embassy of Hungary in Pakistan to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on a recent Pakistani missile test based on information from an Indian official. India does not believe Benazir Bhutto's statement that Pakistan's nuclear program is peaceful. Includes speculation on China's involvement in the program. Pakistan has also approached contacts in Hungary about obtaining nuclear technology.

  • November 17, 1989

    Letter, Richard Carter to Herbert Beukes

    Richard Carter writes to the US Ambassador to South Africa proposing that South Africa "come clean" about its nuclear program.

  • November 28, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 219, Embassy of Hungary in Pakistan to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on India's response to Pakistan's purchase of a nuclear reactor from China.

  • December 12, 1989

    Ciphered Telegram No. 227, Embassy of Hungary in Pakistan to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Short report on talks with the chairman of the Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission. Pakistan wants to purchase a nuclear power plant control system from Hungary.

  • April 24, 1991

    John T. Kriese, US Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Talking Points for Briefing to House Energy and Commerce Committee – Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations'

    These talking points, prepared by John T. Kriese who at the time was both chief of the Nuclear Energy Division at DIA and chairman of the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Community, focused on the intelligence the US had available on the Iraqi nuclear program.

  • July, 1991

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE 5-91C, 'Prospects for Special Weapons Proliferation and Control'

    With the term “weapons of mass destruction” having not yet fully come into general usage, this NIE used the term “special weapons” to describe nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (formerly the term “special weapons” was sometimes used to describe nuclear weapons only). With numerous excisions, including the names of some countries in the sections on “East Asia and the Pacific” and “Central America,” this wide-ranging estimate provides broad-brushed, sometimes superficial, pictures of the situations in numerous countries along with coverage of international controls to halt sensitive technology exports to suspect countries.

  • June 23, 1992

    Letter from US President G. H. W. Bush to Ukrainian President L. Kravchuk

    Bush addresses Ukraine’s security concerns following its commitment on May 24 in Lisbon to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty as a nonnuclear state.