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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Indian Border War, 1962

China and India fought a brief war in late 1962 over disputed territories in the Himalayas, but the conflict's consequences for China's relations with South Asia and the Soviet Union far exceeded its short duration. This collection includes Chinese, Indian, and Soviet records on the border dispute, the war, and the war's aftermath. For the broader context of China's foreign policy toward India and South Asia during the Cold War, see the Digital Archive collection China and South Asia.

  • April 22, 1960

    Notes on the Conversation held between Sardar Swaran Singh and Marshal Chen Yi

  • April 22, 1960

    Record of Talks between P.M. [Jawaharlal Nehru] and Premier Chou En Lai [Zhou Enlai] held on 22nd April, 1960 from 10 A.M. to 1.10 P.M.

    Record of conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Jawaharlal Nehru discussing the dispute on Sino-Indian border. Zhou stated his views on historical facts, common ground and proposals.

  • April 23, 1960

    Record of Talks between P.M. [Jawaharlal Nehru] and Premier Chou En-lai [Zhou Enlai] held on 23rd April, 1960, from 4.30 p.m. 7.45 p.m.

    PM Nehru stated to Premier Zhou regarding his viewpoints on Sino-Indian border disputes by referring the historical legacy.

  • April 23, 1960

    Notes on Conversation held between Sardar Swaran Singh and Marshal Chen Yi on 23rd April, 1960, at Agra

    Swaran Singh and Chen Yi discuss the dispute over the boundaries of the Sino-Indian border.

  • April 24, 1960

    Record of Talks between P.M. [Jawaharlal Nehru] and Premier Chou En Lai [Zhou Enlai] held on 24th April, 1960, from 10.30 a.m. to 1.45 p.m.

    Nehru and Zhou Enlai discuss the dispute over the boundaries of the Sino-Indian border. They argue for national sovereignty and claimed the rights to control the border.

  • April 25, 1960

    Transcript of Conversation between Zhou Enlai and Reporters in New Delhi

    Premier Zhou visits New Delhi. Reporters ask Premier Zhou about the possibility of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting China, the India-China border conflict, and China's relations with other countries. On the topic of territorial disputes, Zhou says that China has never invaded other countries territories, instead China has been the one historically invaded. Zhou ends with remarks emphasizing his hope for maintaining friendly relations between China and India.

  • June 27, 1960

    Memorandum of Conversation between Albanian Ambassador to the PRC Mihal Prifti and Soviet Ambassador to the PRC Stepan V. Chervonenko

    Prifti and Chervonenko discuss Chervonenko's meetings with Peng Zhen on the Sino-Indian border dispute, the decision to send a delegation to the Romanian Workers' Party Congress in Bucharest, and Peng's visit to Moscow. Prifti and Chervonenko also reviewed China's attempts to develop atomic bomb and to compete with the Soviet to be the leader of the world's workers' and communist movement, and the power struggle with the Chinese Communist Party.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Three Conversations Between Director Zhang Wenji and the Indian Ambassador Regarding Sino-Indian Border Issues and the Two Countries’ Relations

    Three conversations between Zhang Wenji and Indian ambassador Parthasarathy, addressing the future of Sino-Indian relations, the Sino-Indian border issue, and India's policies toward Bhutan, Sikkim, and Pakistan.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (2)

    Zhang Wenji and Parthasarathy discuss how to best solve the differences of opinion on the Sino-Indian border held between China and India. Zhang and Parthasarathy discuss different methods and approaches, including a re-examination of historical facts around the Sino-Indian border, focusing on larger patterns and issues, and an emphasis on more detailed and current issues.

  • July 17, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (1)

    Parthasarathy and Zhang Wenji hold an unofficial and informal discussion on the causes for the deterioration of relations between India and China in the last few years (before 1961). Both sides express a desire to improve relations, but also give reasons for grievances, mainly concerning public criticisms made in the press of one country toward the other, and specific disagreements regarding Sino-Indian border issues.

  • July 19, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Director Zhang Wenji and Indian Ambassador Parthasarathy (3)

    Zhang and Parthasarathy continue their conversation on how to solve conflicts stemming from the Sino-Indian border dispute. The two discuss the best possible method to bring about compromise and agreement between the two sides.

  • January 17, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet Ambassador to India I.A. Benediktov

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. During the conversation, Gupta urgently requests Soviet financial aid for the Indian party for use in an upcoming election campaign; the answer conveyed by Benediktov ten days later suggests that the Soviets responded positively to the request, although the amount is not indicated.

  • January 27, 1962

    Entry from the journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, conversation with the Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. Benediktov met with Gupta again on 27 January 1962 (as the Soviet envoy recorded in his diary four days later).

  • March 01, 1962

    Note given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peking, to the Embassy of India in China, 1 March 1962

  • April 21, 1962

    Chinese Foreign Ministry, Presentation of Diplomatic Note to India Concerning Indian Military Personnel’s Encroachment on Chinese Territory

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry alleges that Indian military personnel have entered into Xinjiang and demands that India cease from dispatching troops into Chinese territory

  • April 21, 1962

    Record of Chairman Liu Shaoqi’s Conversation with Korean Ambassador to China Han Ik-su

    During a courtesy call with the new North Korean ambassador, Liu Shaoqi offers his views on Sino-Korean and Sino-Indian relations.

  • July 21, 1962

    Note given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peking, to the Embassy of India in China, 21 July 1962

  • September 01, 1962

    Record of Conversation following Pakistani Ambassador to the PRC Raza’s Presentation of Credentials to Liu Shaoqi’s

    Liu Shaoqi and N.A.M. Raza discuss the Sino-Indian border dispute, and criticize India for having "great power chauvinism."

  • September 05, 1962

    Pakistani Ambassador Raza Pays Formal Visit to Chinese Premier Zhou

    Zhou Enlai and Pakistani Ambassador Raza discuss Chinese and Pakistani relations with India, especially Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's positions on Kashmir, Sino-Indian border disputes, and Sino-Indian interactions on Taiwan and Tibet.

  • October 10, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, Conversation with "Comrade E"

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with the charge d'affairs of the Chinese Embassy in India, Comrade E Cheng-Cheng, referred to as "Comrade E." in the document. In the conversation, the Chinese official gave Beijing's version of the building Sino-Indian border confrontation, blaming India for attacking Chinese posts along the border, and asserting that India had "gone too far" to resume normal relations with the PRC. Ten days later, China launched a broad attack on Indian positions along the disputed frontier.