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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a catch-all collection for sources on Sino-Soviet relations. Its contents are described in an essay by Charles Kraus, "The Sino-Soviet Alliance, 70 Years Later" (February 2020). To see focused collections that deal with specific periods of the Sino-Soviet relationship during the Cold War, see (1) Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; (2) Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; (3) Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; (4) Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and (5) Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • September 30, 1930

    Resolution of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and Soviet of the People’s Commissars of the RSFSR, 'About the Practical Conduct of Nationalities Policy in the Far East Region in Regard to Chinese and Koreans'

    The All-Russian Central Executive Committee lists inadequacies in meeting the needs of Korean and Chinese laborers in the Far Eastern region of the Soviet Union. Problems include interethnic tensions, inequality in labor conditions, inequality in education, capitalist economic activity, lack of Chinese and Korean in state administration and social organizations, and unsatisfactory implementation of resettlement plans.

  • September 01, 1933

    Primorsk Region Oblispolkom, 'Memorandum Report on the Question of the Criminal Conditions in Building No. 10, 'MILLIONKA'

    Addressed to the Oblispolkom, or district administration and executive committee, this report shows concerns about the Chinese population in the far eastern Primorsky region. The “Millionka” were a series of large apartments that housed thousands of Chinese in the Chinese quarter of the Vladivostok and their destruction was part of a series of Stalinist deportations which targeted the Chinese and Korean populations of the city. This document shows the Soviet administrator's deep suspicion of Asian communities and ethnic connections, which they perceived as mysterious, limitless, transnational, and inevitably related to “banditism,” “hooliganism,” drug use, and various criminal activities. The report identifies the Millionka as home to a wide variety of criminal activity and disorder (drug use, prostitution, blackmarket trade, drunkenness), as well as a source of "an anti-Soviet element with counterrevolutionary goals."

  • June 10, 1944

    Paraphrase of Telegram From Harriman to the President

    Harriman relays Stalin's thoughts on the Chinese government and military to the President.

  • June 10, 1944

    Situation in China

    Harriman and Stalin discuss Chinese internal politics, relations with the Soviet Union, and the fight against the Japanese.

  • June 11, 1944

    Harriman and Stalin discuss Chinese Relations

    Harriman relays Stalin's concerns about the Chinese and Sino-Soviet relations in Outer Mongolia.

  • June 26, 1944

    Record of a Conversation with Percy Chen

    D. Godnunov reports that he discussed military developments in the Sino-Japanese War with Percy Chen, as well as the visit to China made by US Vice President Henry Wallace.

  • July, 1945

    Message from Averell Harriman to the President and Secretary of State

    Harriman reports on Chiang Kai-Shek and Stalin's bartering over the status of Outer Mongolia. Chiang refuses to recognize its independence now, but offers to hold a plebiscite after the war.

  • July 02, 1945

    Record of a Meeting between T.V. Soong and Stalin

    Notes taken during meetings between the Chinese nationalist government and the Soviet Union in Moscow during Sino-Soviet treaty negotiations.

  • July 03, 1945

    Memorandum of Conversation between Averell Harriman and T. V. Soong, 'Far Eastern Conversations with Generalissimo Stalin'

    Harriman reports on Soong and Stalin's July 2 conversation on ports and the issue of Outer Mongolia.

  • July 03, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with Stalin and T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports on Stalin and Soong's July 2, 1945 meeting regarding Stalin's attitudes towards a Sino-Soviet railroad and the internationaliztion of ports.

  • July 03, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports on his meeting with Dr. Soong, in which Soong provides him with detailed notes from his July 2, 1945 meeting with Stalin. Soong is concerned that Stalin does not understand the importance of China's territorial integrity in regards to Outer Mongolia, asks for the stance of the United States' government on this issue. Harriman reports on Stalin and Soong's discussion of open ports and Korea.

  • July 05, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Soong promises to, in his future meeting with Stalin, adhere to the Yalta agreement on the issue of Outer Mongolia and to emphasize the territorial integrity of China.

  • July 07, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and Stalin

    Stalin and Dr. Soong continue their discussions on Outer Mongolia, Soong reports Chian Kai-Shek's intention to preserve the status quo of Outer Mongolia according to the Yalta agreement. Stalin and Soong end their meeting in disagreement.

  • July 09, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and Stalin

    Dr. Soong reports Chiang Kai-Shek's response to the stalemate on the question of Outer Mongolia to Stalin and Molotov. Chiang insists on preserving the territorial integrity of China vis a vis Outer Mongolia and Manchuria, and that China's sovereignty in Manchuria should be reinforced by Chinese administration of Port Arthur and Dairen. Stalin asks to think over his decision before responding to Chiang.

  • July 10, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman reports that Soong and Stalin have come to an agreement over the issue of Outer Mongolia, and that China will recognize Outer Mongolia's independence in light of Stalin's proposed Treaty of Alliance between the two nations. Border disputes over Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang remain, as well as the issue of a joint Sino-Soviet railway and the administration of Port Arthur and Dairen.

  • July 10, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T. V. Soong and V. M. Molotov

    Molotov and Soong author a Soviet-Chinese treaty regarding Outer Mongolia, Soviet troops, railways, port Dairen and Port Arthur.

  • July 11, 1945

    Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

    Harriman summarizes the July 11 meeting of Dr. Soong and Stalin, reporting that Stalin has ceded the right of Soviet troops to operate in Manchuria and that China has agreed to acknowledge Outer Mongolia's sovereignty. Dairen and Port Arthur will remain under SOviet military control; there remains dispute over the administration of the Chinese-Soviet railway.

  • July 12, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T.V. Soong and Stalin

    Stalin and T.V. Soong review outstanding issues affecting Sino-Soviet relations in 1945.

  • August 08, 1945

    Memorandum of Conversation between W. A. Harriman and Stalin

    American ambassador W.A. Harriman and Joseph Stalin discuss the right of use for Russian built railroads in Chinese Manchuria, as well as the status of the ports of Darien and Port Arthur.

  • October 30, 1945

    Telegram, Molotov to Cde. Stalin

    Draft reply to Malinovsky concerning Soviet troops in Manchuria, including instructions to avoid responsibilities for the security of Manchuria; allow the Chinese government's representatives to land at Huludao and Yingkou; allow the Chinese planes to land at Fengtian and Changchun