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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Relations

This is a catch-all collection for sources on Sino-Soviet relations. For more focused collections that deal with specific periods of the relationship during the Cold War, see (1) Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; (2) Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; (3) Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984; (4) Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and (5) Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Soviet propaganda poster, "Friends Forever.")

  • February 12, 1950

    Telegram, Mao Zedong to Liu Shaoqi

    Mao Zedong issues an internal party announcement on the signing of a new Sino-Soviet treaty.

  • February 12, 1950

    Top Secret Memorandum to Comrade Joseph V. Stalin from Andrey Vyshinsky

    Vyshinsky reports to Stalin on his talks with Zhou Enlai held the previous day. Discussion focused on a number of affairs, including minor Chinese amendments to Molotov's draft of the Sino-Soviet agreement; the prospect of negotiating a bilateral agreement on trade and technical exchange; outstanding issues regarding Soviet specialists in China; settling a date on which to sign the agreement; and other matters.

  • February 12, 1950

    From the Journal of Ambassador Roshchin: Top Secret Memorandum of Conversation of the Ambassador of the USSR in China N.V. Roshchin with Zhou Enlai

    Roshchin, Soviet Ambassador to China, reports on his conversation with Zhou Enlai regarding the territory of Xinjiang; plans to draft an agreement on the transfer of Manchuria from the Soviet Union to the People's Republic of China; and settling the issue of payment for Soviet specialists in China. Zhou Enlai has also asked Roshchin to inform his Soviet counterparts that 14 February would be the most convenient date to sign the Sino-Soviet agreements, as that will allow the media sufficient time to report on the treaty prior to the Chinese new year celebrations beginning on 16 February.

  • February 13, 1950

    From the Journal of Vyshinsky: Top Secret Memorandum of Conversation with Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai

    Vyshinsky reports to Stalin that Zhou Enlai wishes to publish the completed Sino-Soviet agreements. Doing so, Zhou believes, will legitimate the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China in the eyes of the world, particularly the democratic countries. However, because an agreement on publication had not previously been made, Vyshinsky tells Zhou that this is not yet possible. Vyshinsky informs Zhou that he will consult the Soviet government on this matter and report back without delay.

  • February 17, 1950

    Top Secret Memorandum to Comrade Joseph V. Stalin from Andrey Vyshinsky

    Vyshinsky reports to Stalin that Zhou Enlai, having considered the proposed draft of the Sino-Soviet trade agreement, has no objections. However, there remain some discrepancies between the Soviet and Chinese drafts. Vyshinsky describes these inconsistencies in detail and recounts his subsequent negotiations with Zhou.

  • March 05, 1950

    Letter, Molotov to Zhou Enlai

    Molotov thanks Zhou Enlai for the birthday wishes.

  • April 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai requests and gives deadlines for the sending of aviation equipment and personnel from Moscow, mentioning that China is anticipating military conquests of the Danshan and Jinmen islands.

  • May 06, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Wang Jiaxiang

    The Chinese side is anxious for the dispatchment of advisors and ammunition that was requested from the Soviet Union, for use in aviation institute drills and for military campaigns in Dinghai, Jinmen, and Taiwan.

  • May 13, 1950

    Cable from Roshchin to Stalin, Relaying Mao's Request for Clarification on North Korea Taking Action Against South Korea

    The telegram relays a request from Mao, conveyed via Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai, seeking Stalin’s “personal clarifications” of his stand on a potential North Korean action to reunify the country. Mao sought the information after hearing a report from Kim, who had arrived that day in the Chinese capital for a secret two-day visit and clearly claimed that he had received Stalin’s blessing.

  • May 13, 1950

    Telegram from Zhou Enlai to Nikolai Bulganin

    Zhou Enlai presses Moscow to accelerate the dispatchment of requested equipment and personnel by the specified deadline so that the Chinese air force and navy can prepare for the military campaign to seize Zhoushan Island.

  • May 14, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 8600 from Vyshinsky to the Soviet Embassy in Peking

    The cable contains Stalin’s personal response to Mao's 13 May telegram. Using the code-name “Filippov,” Stalin confirms his agreement with the North Korean proposal to “move toward reunification,” contingent on Beijing’s assent.

  • May 16, 1950

    Telegram from Filippov (Stalin) to Mao Zedong via the Soviet ambassador

    Stalin notifies Mao Zedong that he believes the signing of a treaty pact between China and North Korea should only come after Korean reunification.

  • July 05, 1950

    Ciphered telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai via Roshchin

    A telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai with regards to India's mediation in the PRC's entry into the UN, Chinese troop movements in preparation for a possible Southern/Allied counterattack, and Soviet planes flying over Manchuria.

  • July 08, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 3231, Filippov (Stalin) to Soviet Ambassador Roshchin

    Telegram from Stalin to Beijing advising that they send a representative to Korea.

  • July 11, 1950

    Telegram from the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee to Gao Gang

    Due to the Korean situation, the Soviet government requests the use of air and railway transport through China, to which the Chinese side agrees.

  • July 22, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 22591 from Roschin to Filippov [Stalin]

    Mao Zedong informs Stalin of China's military and strategic maneuvers in summer 1950 as a result of the Korean War.

  • July 25, 1950

    Ciphered Telegram No. 13645 from Vyshinsky to Roschin

    Telegram relaying message from Stalin to Mao and Zhou Enlai agreeing with proposal to train Chinese pilots on Soviet jet planes.

  • August 27, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai

    Telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai answering his request for military advisors.

  • October 05, 1950

    Message from Stalin to Mao Zedong

    Stalin describes the US inability to engage in a "big war" and encourages Kim in his fight against the US. He also discusses the domestic situation in China.

  • October 14, 1950

    Letter from Zhou Enlai to Stalin

    Zhou Enlai requests military equipment and support for Chinese operations from the Soviet side, and asks for instructions on solving the issue of command relationships between the North Korean, Chinese, and Soviet forces.