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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • August 01, 1975

    A Relayed Note from Comrade G. Ragulin

    Outlines the results of a meeting in Ulaanbaatar where specific measures were given to deal with the anti-Sovietism and Maoism in China.

  • January 23, 1976

    Secret Telegram No. 969/I - From Moscow to Warsaw

    The Polish Ambassador in Moscow relays an overview of First Secretary Deputy Head of the International Department of the CC CPSU Oleg Rakhamnin's thoughts on the situation in the PRC.

  • February 05, 1976

    Notes about the Meeting in the Central Committee of the CPSU on 2 February 1976

    An overview of a conversation in which the East Germans and Soviets compared impressions of the situation in the PRC and China's attitude toward other socialist countries.

  • March 11, 1976

    Minutes of the Meeting between Todor Zhivkov and Fidel Castro in Sofia

    Conversation for the record between Zhivkov and Castro during a four-day-long state visit of the Cuban leader to Bulgaria. Among the main issues discussed was the state of economic development in both countries, their relations with Albania, China, Romania and Yugoslavia; the Cuban foreign policy in Africa and the Caribbean; the civil war in Angola; the battle for the Third World.

  • July 14, 1976

    Consultation with Comrade O. B. Rakhmanin, Candidate of the CPSU CC and First Deputy Head of the International Department of CC, to Prepare the Ninth Interkit Meeting on 9 July 1976 in Moscow

    This consultation on preparations for the 9th Internal China (Interkit) Meeting in Berlin. Notes the growing anti-Sovietism in China, as well as a possible rebirth of capitalism there.

  • September 24, 1976

    Secret Telegram No. 3239/III - From Moscow to Warsaw

    A telegram claiming that one of the most significant problems in China following Mao's death is the personnel problem, that there is "no single exceptional personality" on the Chinese scene.

  • September 29, 1976

    Secret Telegram No. 3453/III - From Moscow to Warsaw

    An assessment of the situation in China following Mao's death and a few lines about Soviet policy following this development.

  • December 23, 1976

    Secret Telegram No. 3571/IV - From Moscow to Warsaw

    The Secretary Deputy Head of the International Department of the CC CPSU, Oleg Rakhamnin, reports there are no changes in China’s anti-Soviet propaganda

  • January 26, 1977

    Note about the Meeting with Comrade Kulik, Division Head in the CPSU CC Department, on Preparation for the Ninth Interkit and the Situation in China on 26 January 1977

    Reviews the first draft of a Soviet report on "China on the Eve of Mao Zedong’s Death," which was to be handed out as joint CPSU-SED material to participants of the Ninth Interkit meeting

  • March 02, 1977

    Informational Note from the Conference of Secretaries of Central Committees of Fraternal Parties in Sofia

    Secretaries CC CPSU Konstantin Katushev and B. Ponomarov provide information on the situation in China that is discussed during a confidential meeting of CC secretaries. Addressed are issues related to the fact "that Maoism failed ideologically, caused great harm to the Chinese nation, and did an enormous devastation in the areas of economy, culture, science, and social life," and ways the new Chinese government may behave.

  • April 15, 1977

    Informational Note on the Meeting of the Representatives of International Departments of Six Fraternal Parties

    The CPSU, PUWP, SED, CPCz, HWSP, and BCP met to discuss an upcoming conference devoted to the discussion of the “Problems of Peace and Socialism.” China was another focus of the meeting, particularly the implications of the expansion of its industrial-military complex.

  • June, 1977

    East German Report on the Ninth Interkit Meeting in Berlin, June 1977

    This report was issued after the ninth Interkit meeting in East Berlin, which featured an official Cuban delegation. The document addresses the Chinese question after the death of Mao Zedong. According to this report, the internal disputes inside the Chinese Communist Party persist under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping. The economic problems that China faces are still unresolved. In its foreign relations, China is staying the course by maintaining relations with Western countries, especially with the US. These relations are considered to be detrimental to international détente and directed against the interests of the Soviet Union and the Socialist countries.

  • June, 1977

    East German Report, 'China after Mao Zedong'

    This study gives an account on the domestic and foreign policies of China after the death of Mao Zedong. The first part of the document is dedicated to the domestic policies of the Chinese government. It analyzes the ideological backgrounds of the new leadership as well as the economic situation, while emphasizing unsolved problems in industry and agriculture. A closer look at Beijing's defense spending leads the authors to the conclusion that China is enhancing its military potential and preparing for war.

  • June 21, 1977

    Note About a Meeting between Comrade Hermann Axen, Member of the Politburo and Secretary of the SED CC, and Comrade O. B. Rakhmanin, Candidate of the CPSU CC and First Deputy Head of the International Department of CC, on 17 June 1977

    An excerpt of speeches given to the meeting participants. A major theme is "how to win back China."

  • July 14, 1977

    Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Decision on Information about China after Mao

    This decision of the Politburo of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) refers to specific measures to be undertaken by Bulgaria's ideological and propagandistic organs in publicly condemning Maoism as an ideology contrary to the theory and practice of Socialism and Marxism-Leninism. Among these measures are the commissioning of publications, media reports, and lectures at institutions of higher education in order to excoriate Chinese foreign policy for its attacks on the Soviet Union and the other European Socialist countries.

  • September 23, 1977

    Notes on Meetings held in the Great Hall of the People in Peking, on 3 and 4 August 1977 at 3 PM

    Huang Hua, commenting on a number of developments around the world, suggests that China's foreign policy continues to emulate the thinking and concerns of Mao Zedong.

  • March 06, 1978

    Informational Note from the Eight Parties’ Meeting in Budapest

    This document presents "information and views on the current problems in the international and workers’ movement, the China question and anti-communist offensive struggle against imperialism."

  • June 18, 1978

    Record of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador A.M. Puzanov and Taraki

    Record of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador A.M. Puzanov and Taraki on possible disunity within the Afghan Communist Party, rebutted by Taraki claiming that the party is unified

  • June 27, 1978

    Exposition of the Conversations with Cde. V. I. Potapov, Chief of the Romanian Sector of the CPSU CC

    Briefing given by V. I. Potapov on the dispute between the USSR and the SSR regarding the historical treatment of Soviet-Romanian relations. The SSR was accused of pursuing an independent foreign policy and offering a bad example for other socialist countries. Some issues examined were: the Romanian position in the Belgrade Negotiations, the RCP attitude towards “Eurocommunism," the Romanian position towards Africa, the Middle East and China and the Moldavian question.

  • September, 1978

    Note from the Conversation with the Politburo Member of the CC CPS, Minster of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, Comrade Andrei Gromyko

    A short excerpt from a discussion about China