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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • September 29, 1962

    Cable from the Xinjiang Foreign Affairs Department, 'The Actual Situation of Seditious Material against China in Soviet Newspapers and Journals'

    After the publication of seditious materials in Soviet Kazakhstan, the Xinjiang Foreign Affairs Department updates the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on information related to the materials.

  • October 22, 1962

    Soviet Memorandum on the Sino-Indian Border Issue

    The Soviet Union outlines its stance toward the ongoing Sino-Indian border war, including its policy of selling arms to India.

  • October 22, 1962

    Memorandum of Conversation between Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Hanfu and Soviet Ambassador Stepan Chervonenko

    Stepan Chervonenko and Zhang Hanfu discuss the ongoing border dispute between India and China, and Chervonenko presents a Soviet memorandum outlining the USSR's stance toward the war.

  • October 25, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Memorandum from the Soviet Union on the Sino-Indian Border Dispute and the Sale of Aircrafts to India'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry informed all of its embassies and Charge d’Affaires about the Soviet Memorandum on the Sino-Indian Dispute and emphasized the necessity to make clear that India was the invader, not China.

  • October 31, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in the Soviet Union, 'Views on Khrushchev's Compromise with the United States on Cuba'

    The Chinese Embassy shares their opinion on Khrushchev's reconciliation with Kennedy after the Cuban Missile Crisis. They believe: Khrushchev’s activities "amounted to a bowl of cold water, poured right over the Cuban people"; because of Khrushchev, those who sit on the fence have now leaned rightward; American imperialists will, under the banner of the UN, create troubles for Cuba; and Khrushchev exhausted his words to exculpate Kennedy, which invariably stemmed from the concern to arrange a Cuba deal as a starting point, with the ultimate goal to push for reconciliations to be reached on other questions.

  • November 02, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, Conversation with Indian Foreign Ministry General-Secretary R.K. Nehru

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Indian Foreign Ministry General-Secretary R.K. Nehru regarding border disputes with China. Approaching the Soviet envoy at a social gathering, the Indian official relayed an oral message to Khrushchev from Indian Prime Minister Nehru (whom he described as "exceptionally busy, very tired"), giving his analysis of the underlying motives behind China's actions in the border dispute. The Indian leader assessed that Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai--with whom Nehru had cooperated in championing the rise of the non-aligned movement only a few years earlier--opposed the current militant policy toward India, but that leftist dogmatists-sectarians within the Chinese leadership, such as Liu Shaoqi, supported it. They did so, Nehru reportedly maintained, not because of the border dispute, but to strike a blow against the general phenomenon of neutrality in order to discredit Moscow's line of peaceful coexistence and competition with the West, and avoiding general nuclear war. In fact, Nehru was said to declare, the Chinese threatened to embroil the entire world in war, and had divided the globe into two new camps: not East and West, but "one - for the continuation of the human species, the other (the Chinese sectarians) - against."

  • November 05, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Instruction to Diplomatic Posts on How to Express Attitude in Response to Khrushchev’s Letters'

    Instruction to from the Chinese Foreign Ministry to the Embassy in Yugoslavia (and all other embassies) asking them to avoid commenting directly on the exchange of letters between Kennedy and Khrushchev, but positively indicate China's support for Cuba’s struggle.

  • November 06, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Instruction on How to Express Positions Regarding the Cuba-Soviet Relationship'

    Instructions from the Chinese Foreign Ministry to the Embassy in Cuba instructing them to indicate their support for Fidel Castro's November 1st speech, but advising "with respect to the Cuban-Soviet relationship, [you] should not speak but listen [zhiting bushuo]."

  • November 08, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Cuba, 'Report on the Experience of the Soviet National Day Reception'

    A report describing the Soviet National Day in Cuba by the Chinese Embassy. They describe the day as cordial and reference many forms of Cuban-Chinese-Soviet cultural relations.

  • November 10, 1962

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy to the Soviet Union, 'A Report of the Speech Given By the Chief Editor of the Soviet Weekly Za Rubezhom'

    On the 31st of October, the chief editor of the Soviet weekly, Za Rubezhom delivered a report on current events in the Moscow Agriculture College. Regarding the Cuba problem and the Sino-Indian border problem.

  • December 08, 1962

    Cable from Hao Deqing, 'On The Talks between Pak Geum-cheol and Ambassador Hao'

    Hao Deqing reports on a conversation concerning Eastern Europe's criticisms of China and Soviet-North Korean relations with Pak Geum-cheol.

  • December 12, 1962

    Minutes of Conversation between Chinese Deputy Director of the Department of Soviet and European Affairs Yu Zhan and Charge d’Affaires of the Soviet Union Nikolai Mesyatsev on the Sino-Indian Boundary Issue

    Yu Zhan and Nikolai Mesyatsev argued on Soviet responsibility in the stubbornness of India.

  • January 15, 1963

    Record of Conversation between Soviet Ambassador to China Stepan V. Chervonenko and the Mongolian Ambassador to China Dondogiin Tsevegmid

    An account of conversation between the head Mongolian delegate to China, Tsedenbal, and Chinese Premier, Enlai, which was relayed by Mongolian ambassador, Tsevegmid, to USSR ambassador, Chervonenko. Tsedenbal and Enlai discuss China's sending workers to Mongolia, and the sending of goods from Mongolia to China. Additionally, the two argue about which country is following the proper ideological line, and about what propaganda materials are being printed in Mongolia.

  • February 01, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation between the Delegates from the Society for Soviet-Chinese Friendship (OKSD), Li Xigeng and Li Zhanwu, with the Society's General Secretariat, 18 November 1962

    A Soviet delegation visiting China meets with local representatives of the Society for Soviet-Chinese Friendship (OKSD) and the two groups have a tense conversation about the Soviet handling of the recent Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • February 23, 1963

    [Mao Zedong's] Conversation with Soviet Ambassador [Stepan] Chervonenko

    Chervonenko unsuccessfully attempts to engage with Mao.

  • March 06, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Romania, 'Some Reflections on Romania’s Approach to Combating Revisionism'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bucharest reports on Romanian-Yugoslav relations.

  • March 11, 1963

    Secret Telegram from Maneli (Hanoi) to Spasowski-Morski (Warsaw) [Ciphergram No. 3175]

    Cable from Polish Ambassador in Hanoi Maneli to Warsaw, describing a conversation he had with Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong and Soviet Ambassador Tovmassian. They discuss the idea of neutralization in Vietnam, and the possibility of the United States pulling forces out. Tovmassian adds that the PRC pressured the DRV to start incidents in the demilitarized zone.

  • March 12, 1963

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana (Beck), Report on Conversation with Cuban Foreign Ministry Official on Hungarian-Cuban Relations and Sino-Soviet Split

    Hungarian Ambassador to Cuba János Beck reports on a conversation between Hungarian functionaries Görög and Sütő and Cuban Ambassador to Hungary José Fuxa. Their discussion revolves around Cuban-Hungarian and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • March 13, 1963

    Cable from the CCPCC International Liaison Department and the Foreign Ministry, 'Key Points of the Conversation from Chairman of the CCP CC Comrade Mao Zedong’s Reception of the Soviet Ambassador to China Comrade Chernovenko'

    Mao Zedong discusses the relationship between China and the Soviet Union and the debate between the two Parties, proposes a meeting for fraternal discussion, and commits to countering Western imperialism.

  • April, 1963

    Report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'The Soviet Union’s Stance on the Sino-Indian Boundary Question and Soviet-Indian Relations'

    An extensive report from the Chinese Foreign Ministry on the Soviet Union's policies vis-a-vis the Sino-Indian Border War.