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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • April 03, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation between Yuri Andropov and the Central Committee of the Romanian Worker’s Party

    Soviet politburo member Yuri Andropov and Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej discuss issues concerning the cooperation between the CPSU and the Romanian Worker's party and the two governments. The discussion ranges between economic integration issues, to the Sino-Soviet split, Soviet-Albanian relations, and politico-military cooperation between Warsaw Pact states.

  • April 04, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Germany, 'The Opinion of the Former First-Secretary of the German Embassy in China on Sino-German Differences'

    Chinese and German diplomats discuss East German policies toward the Sino-Soviet split, criticisms of Stalin, and the situation in Yugoslavia.

  • April 27, 1963

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Questions regarding the German Diplomat wanting to Establish Friendly Relations with China'

    The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports that East Germany, which "has served as Khrushchev’s anti-Chinese vanguard," is interested in improving relations with Beijing.

  • May 31, 1963

    Secret Telegram from Maneli (Saigon) to Spasowski (Warsaw) [Ciphergram No. 7353]

    Report from Polish official in Saigon, Maneli, to Warsaw, on his meeting with Pham Van Dong. Dong describes plans for South Vietnam's future government and neutrality, along with North Vietnam's compliance with the Geneva Accords. Reports that Soviet Ambassador Tovmassian was surprised at the high degree of Chinese participation in Vietnam.

  • July 04, 1963

    Transcript of Meeting of the Political Bureau of the CC of Romanian Worker’s Party

    The conversation focuses on whether or not to publish declarations made by the Chinese Communist Party and those made by the CPSU. The Romanians are concerned how the people will react to tension between the two communist countries.

  • July 08, 1963

    Meeting of the Delegations of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Chinese Communist Party, Moscow, 5-20 July 1963

  • July 23, 1963

    Analysis by the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry of Chinese-Albanian and Chinese-Yugoslav Relations

    This document reviews relations between China and Albania during the 1960s, focusing on political and economic cooperation between the two allies. The author also discusses the relationship between China and Yugoslavia in the 1950s and 1960s. The document shows that Sino-Yugoslav relations have deteriorated due to Chinese criticism of the Albanian brand of Socialism.

  • August 01, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Our Efforts Against the Subversive Activities of the Soviet Union in Xinjiang'

    Report on Soviet activities in Xinjiang and countermeasures undertaken by the Chinese government.

  • August 14, 1963

    Information by the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry on the Soviet-Chinese Discussions in Moscow

    This document examines Sino-Soviet relations with a focus on a 1963 discussion forum in Moscow. The analysis reveals an ideological and political divide between the two countries. Attached is a document outlining Chinese positions on questions of Socialism and peace and on Soviet-Sino relations.

  • September 05, 1963

    Zhou Enlai’s Discussion with a Kenyan African National Federation Delegation (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai criticizes the Three-Nation Treaty (Limited Test Ban Treaty) of 1963, arguing that it signifies an attempt by the US, UK, and USSR to monopolize nuclear weapons. Enlai warns that the agreement will allow larger nuclear countries to commit “nuclear blackmail” against smaller, non-nuclear countries.

  • September 24, 1963

    Report on Visit of the Society of Chinese-Soviet Friendship to the Soviet Union, T. Skvortsov-Tokarin

    Report on a tour group of Chinese citizens from the Society of Chinese-Soviet Friendship. The group visited Moscow, Tbilisi, Sochi, Kiev, Riga, and Leningrad. The Soviet guides were frustrated by the groups' argumentative behavior and attempts to speak directly to Soviet workers. The group was especially interested in finding out if Soviet listeners heard broadcasts of Radio Beijing.

  • November 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Chinese Officials and the Hungarian Ambassador to China

    Martin, the Hungarian ambassador to China, is involved with several conversations with Chinese officials before returning to Hungary, and the three highlighted conversations are with Zhu De, Chen Yi, and Zhou Enlai. Among other international issues, Zhu De discusses imperial attempts to restore capitalism in socialist countries and references “revisionism” in Hungary, to which Martin responds defensively. Chen Yi discusses Chinese industrial and economic development. Zhou Enlai discusses recent Chinese struggles, and interprets Martin’s reaction as distrust.

  • November 22, 1963

    Cable from the Foreign Ministry, 'Indicating the Spirit of Ambassadors’ Talks with the Romanian Side'

    The Chinese Foreign Ministry lays out China's policies toward Romania in the context of the Sino-Soviet split.

  • November 27, 1963

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Germany, 'Brief of a Conversation with the Polish Ambassador'

    Feliks Baranowski and Wang Guoquan discuss the Sino-Soviet split and China's relations with Poland.

  • November 29, 1963

    Cable from the Department of Consular Affairs, Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'On Anti-Revisionist Propaganda'

    Brief report on the status of the Soviet Union and Kazakhstan, including mention of aggressive anti-Chinese propaganda.

  • December 07, 1963

    Telegram number 7125/28 from Maurice Dejean

    Maurice Dejean summarizes recent reporting done on China by Soviet news agencies.

  • December 08, 1963

    Cable from the CCP Central Committee, 'Response on the Problem of Counterattacking the Rumors and Slander against China in Soviet Radio Broadcasts, Newspapers, and Magazines'

    Update on Party request to respond to slander against China by the Soviet Union, including plans for future strategies.

  • January 07, 1964

    Memorandum of a Conversation with the USSR Ambassador, c. V. P. Moskovskyi

    Soviet Ambassador Moskovsky talks with the Cuban Ambassador to Pyongyang about the foreign policies of North Korea and, in particular, North Korea's position in the Sino-Soviet split.

  • February 19, 1964

    Cable from Hao Deqing to the International Liaison Department, 'The Korean Workers' Party Received a Letter from the Romanian Communist Party'

    Hao Deqing reports from North Korea that the Romanians are making an effort to resolve the Sino-Soviet dispute.

  • March, 1964

    Transcript of Conversations between Delegations of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers Party and the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (Excerpts)

    Romanian and Chinese officials on the Soviet use of informal channels to interfere in Romania’s domestic affairs.