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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • March 15, 1964

    Conversations between the Delegation of the Romanian Workers Party and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Pitzunda, 15 March 1964 (excerpts)

    Khrushchev and Mikoyan discuss the Cuban Missile Crisis in this excerpt from a conversation with a Romanian delegation in Pitzunda, Georgia (now Abkhazia). They discuss the Sino-Soviet Split, and Khrushchev complains that "the Chinese qualified us as adventurers, while on other issues they call us cowards," and explains his reasoning for defending Cuba.

  • April 01, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Former Ambassador to Poland Wang Bingnan and Władysław Gomułka

    Wang Bingnan and Władysław Gomułka discuss the Sino-Soviet split.

  • May 07, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Moscow, 'The Circumstances of Ambassador Pan’s Attendance of an Ambassador's Gathering'

    Mikoyan tells Pan Zili that “our arguments and divergences should be over by now."

  • May 15, 1964

    Record of the Conversation from Chairman Mao’s Audience with the Albanian Women’s Delegation and Albanian Film Workers

    Mao and Vito Kapo discuss Sino-Albanian relations in the context of the anti-revisionist struggle against the Soviet Union.

  • June 05, 1964

    Conversations between Romanian Leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and Chinese Ambassador Liu Fang, Referring to Bilateral Relations and the Soviet-Chinese Ideological Conflict Snagov, 5 June 1964 (excerpts)

    In excerpts from their conversation, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, First Secretary of the Romanian Workers Party and Liu Fang, Chinese Ambassador to Romania, discuss the increasing tension between both their countries and the Soviet Union. Gheorghiu-Dej also explains his objections to the attempted admission of Mongolia to the Warsaw Pact. Romanian military leader Emil Bodnăraş is also present.

  • July 04, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign and Public Security Ministries, 'Response to Work Arrangements and on Opinions on the Closure of the Soviet Consulates'

    Report on closure of Soviet consulates, worrying activities of the consulates, and plans for the exit of Soviet nationals from China.

  • July 22, 1964

    Report by the Czechoslovak Embassy in Tirana on Albanian-Chinese Relations

    This document reviews Albanian-Chinese relations during the mid-1960s, and discusses Albanian-Chinese differences with regard to their respective interpretations of Socialist ideology.

  • August 03, 1964

    Comrade Zhou Enlai, Comrade Peng Zhen Receive Tran Tu Binh, Vietnam’s Ambassador to China; Nesti Nase, Albania’s Ambassador to China; and Pak Se-chang, Korea’s Ambassador to China

    The meeting was among leaders from China, Vietnam, North Korea and Albania in 1964. They discussed Soviet-Romanian relations and plans to support Romania.

  • August 26, 1964

    From the Diary of Yu. P. Chestnoy, Record of a Conversation with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Bolivia, Mario Monje, 3 August 1964

    The General Secretary of the Communist Party of Bolivia, Mario Monje, informs Chestnoy about a recent meeting with Che Guevara, in which they discuss the differences in Chinese Communist leadership policies. Guevara states that if forced to choose between the two sides, Cuban leadership would be on the side of the Soviet Union.

  • September 27, 1964

    Note on the Conversation between the Romanian Party and Government Delegation led by Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev

    Note reporting on negative comments made by Khrushchev about Mao Zedong.

  • September 27, 1964

    Memorandum of Conversation between the Romanian Party and Government Delegation Led by Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev

    Representatives from Romania and the Soviet Union discuss the current industrial and economic situation, as well as foreign relations with China.

  • September 30, 1964

    Record of Conversation between the Mongolian People’s Republic Government Delegation and the Deputy Chairman of the People’s Republic of China State Council, Foreign Minister Chen Yi

    Conversation between the Mongolian People’s Republic Government Delegation and the Deputy Chairman of the People’s Republic of China State Council, Foreign Minister Chen Yi. The Chinese Foreign Minister welcomes the Mongolian delegation to the 15 anniversary of the People's Republic of China. The discussion covers Sino-Soviet relations, Chinese claims to Hong Kong and Macao, and Chinese and Mongolian foreign policy questions.

  • October 18, 1964

    Cable to the CCPCC International Liaison Department and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Reactions of Albanian Newspapers to Our Nuclear Bomb Test and Khrushchev’s Removal'

    The Chinese Embassy in Tirana notes Albania's positive responses to China's successful nuclear test.

  • October 21, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in North Korea, 'Reactions among the North Korean Masses to China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in North Korea notes North Koreans' positive responses to China's first nuclear weapons test and a downfall of Khrushchev in the Soviet Union

  • October 22, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'India's Reactions to Khrushchev's Removal and China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India describing mixed responses of Indians on Khrushchev's removal and China's nuclear test.

  • October 29, 1964

    Conversation Record of Premier Zhou Enlai’s Meeting with the Five Ambassadors and Charge d'affaires of Vietnam, Romania, Albania, Cuba, and Korea

    Zhou Enlai evaluates Nikita Khrushchev's dismissal as Secretary of Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

  • November 07, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Polish leader Wladyslaw Gomułka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Moscow

    Zhou Enlai and Gomulka discuss the growing split between China and the Soviet Union.

  • November 09, 1964

    Record of Conversation between Polish leader Wladyslaw Gomułka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Moscow

    Zhou Enlai and Gomulka discuss the Sino-Soviet split following Khrushchev's removal as well as Poland's involvement in maintaining peace in Vietnam.

  • December 03, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Czechoslovakia to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Our Contacts with Middle- and Lower-Level Personnel'

    The Chinese Embassy in Czechoslovakia reports that "people were willing to talk with us and listen to our opinions" since Khrushchev's fall from power.

  • December 10, 1964

    Note No. 131/64 on a Conversation between the Soviet Embassy Counselor, Comrade Privalov, and Comrade Bibow on 11 November 1964 in the GDR Embassy from 10:30 a.m. - 12:45 p.m. [Excerpts]

    Conversation at the East German Embassy between Embassy Counselor Privalov and Comrade Bibow, centering on the Vietnamese delegation to Moscow in November 1964. They discuss how Soviet policy remains unchanged since the 22nd Congress, and how the Chinese try to oppose the successors of Krushchev.