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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Sino-Soviet Split, 1960-1984

Documents on the growing division and worsening relations between China and the Soviet Union from 1960 onward. For other collections on Sino-Soviet relations, see Making of the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1945-1950; Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1950-1959; Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969; and Sino-Soviet Rapprochement, 1985-1989. (Image, Mao and Khrushchev, 1958)

  • December, 1959

    Mao Zedong, Outline for a Speech on the International Situation

    Draft of a speech by Mao Zedong, criticizing Khrushchev for his revisionism and for fearing Chinese Communism. Lists the occasions on which the Soviet Union has failed to support China, and extols the concept of continuous revolution.

  • February 23, 1960

    Meeting Minutes between Zhang Weile and Soviet Deputy Director of the Far Eastern Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs R. Sh. Kudashev

    Kudashev explained why the USSR was lobbying for Nehru: His influence in Asia, the importance of Indian support in the upcoming East-West Summit Conference, the possibility of enlisting India as an ally. He also discussed treaties between China and Burma and Indonesia.

  • February 24, 1960

    Cable from the Xinhua Branch in New Delhi, 'The Sino-Indian Border Issue Mentioned in Nehru-Khrushchev Talks'

    The Xinhua Office in New Delhi reports that Nehru and Khrushchev broached the Sino-Indian border dispute in their recent talks.

  • February 24, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Soviet Attaché in India Tells Us That Nehru Initiated Discussion of Border Issue in Nehru-Khrushchev Talks'

    The Chinese Embassy in India reports that it was Nehru who raised the Sino-Indian border dispute in discussions with Nikita Khrushchev.

  • March 01, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Indonesia, 'Memorandum of Conversation: Ambassador Huang Meets with Comrade Khrushchev'

    Huang Zhen and Nikita Khrushchev briefly discuss Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-Indian relations, and Soviet-Indonesian relations during a visit by Khrushchev to Jakarta.

  • March 06, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'Report on Khrushchev-Nehru Talks in Calcutta'

    The Soviet Cultural Attache reports on the Khrushchev-Nehru talks to a Xinhua reporter.

  • June, 1960

    From the Diary of S. V. Chervonenko, Memorandum of Conversation with the General Secretary of the CC CCP, Deng Xiaoping, 17 May 1960

    Deng Xiaoping discuss Khrushchev's speech regarding the American U-2 spy plane shot down by the Soviet Union in May 1960 and the Eisenhower administration's attempted cover up. He also discussed Zhou Enlai's visit to India and continued tensions between India and China.

  • June 27, 1960

    Memorandum of Conversation between Albanian Ambassador to the PRC Mihal Prifti and Soviet Ambassador to the PRC Stepan V. Chervonenko

    Prifti and Chervonenko discuss Chervonenko's meetings with Peng Zhen on the Sino-Indian border dispute, the decision to send a delegation to the Romanian Workers' Party Congress in Bucharest, and Peng's visit to Moscow. Prifti and Chervonenko also reviewed China's attempts to develop atomic bomb and to compete with the Soviet to be the leader of the world's workers' and communist movement, and the power struggle with the Chinese Communist Party.

  • July 03, 1960

    Report by Nie Rongzhen to Mao Zedong Regarding Science and Technology (Abridged)

    Nie Rongzhen reports to Mao on scientific and technical issues and Soviet assistance and cooperation in the area of nuclear development. The Chinese were becoming frustrated by what they called the Soviet "stranglehold" on key technical data, and led to an unwanted feeling of dependence on their Soviet comrades.

  • July 11, 1960

    Some Remarks by Zhou Enlai on a Report by Nie Rongzhen

    In the wake of a deepening Sino-Soviet split, Zhou Enlai explains how to manage Chinese bilateral technological and educational exchanges. Above all, Zhou emphasizes the importance of Chinese self-reliance in innovation and education as the country moves forward.

  • July 18, 1960

    Mao Zedong’s Talk at the Beidaihe Central Committee Work Conference (Excerpt)

    Mao Zedong declares that, in the absence of Soviet assistance, China must rely only upon itself in its pursuit of technological modernity and socialism.

  • July 18, 1960

    Letter, Khrushchev to the Central Committee of The Socialist Unity Party of Germany, regarding Soviet Specialists in China

    Khruschev reports Chinese dissatisfaction with Soviet specialists that had been placed in China to aid in socialist economic, cultural, and military development. He notes that despite the dissatisfaction, the CCP insists that they remain in China. However, due to recent complaints by the specialists about being propagandized by the Chinese against the CPSU, the Soviet government has decided to withdraw the specialists from China.

  • July 18, 1960

    Note, the Soviet Embassy in Beijing to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China

    The Soviet Embassy reports that in response to Chinese dissatisfaction with Soviet experts, as well as Chinese disrespectful behavior towards the Soviets, the Embassy is recalling all Soviet experts and advisors from the country.

  • July 24, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 24-26 July 1960

    Kim Il Sung and Puzanov discuss Soviet-DPRK relations, a the proposed visit by Khrushchev to Korea, Sino-Soviet relations, the economic situation in North Korea, and North Korea's views on recent events in South Korea.

  • August 13, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 13 August 1960

    Puzanov and Pak Geum-cheol discuss Soviet-North Korean relations and the ongoing Sino-Soviet split.

  • August 18, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 18 August 1960

    Kim Il Sung and A.M. Puzanov discuss China's attempts to sway other communist parties against the Soviet Union.

  • September, 1960

    The Short Version of the Negotiations Between CPSU and CCP Delegations (September 1960)

  • September 25, 1960

    [Mao Zedong's] Conversation with [Richard] Dixon and [Lawrence "Lance"] Sharkey [then President and General Secretary of the Communist Party of Australia]

    Mao, Dixon, and Sharkey discuss various issues of concern for their respective communist parties, such as the Soviet stance on disarmament and disagreements with the British Communist Party. The Australian communists express support for the Chinese Communist Party, but also urge the Chinese communists to resolve their disputes with the Soviets.

  • October 08, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 8 October 1960

    Petro Gedeshi and Kurt Schneidewind argue about the Soviet decision to recall specialists from the China. Kim Il Sung understands the delay of Khrushchev's visit to the DPRK and suggests that it be rescheduled for spring 1961.

  • October 13, 1960

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Romania, 'Principal Differences in the Communist Movement since the Bucharest Conference and a Series of New Measures regarding Romanian-Chinese Relations'

    The Chinese Embassy in Bucharest concludes that "Romania will agree with the USSR on major differences with China."