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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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Warsaw Pact Military Planning

Documents on military cooperation and shared exercises among the Warsaw Pact states. See also the general Warsaw Pact collection and the related collections in the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. (Image, Warsaw Treaty Organization badge)

  • March 19, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Operational Directive No. 2 of the Maritime Front

    This document chronicles continuing developments in the hypothetical "Soyuz-75" military exercise. After two days of battle, Eastern forces have overpowered the West. However, due to the deployment of nuclear weapons, the zone between the rivers Elbe and Oder has become radioactive. In light of the possibility that the West may soon deploy reserve forces, the document directs the Polish Maritime Front to plan an offensive towards Berlin, Hannover, and Brussels with the goal of defeating Western forces in northern West Germany. By the end of March, the Maritime Front is to occupy the Jutland peninsula and reach the North Sea coast at the border of France. Finally, the document directs the Maritime Front to a defense of its position on the North Sea and prescribes the use of nuclear weapons against enemy forces.

  • March 19, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Combat Order No. 1 of the 4th Army

    This document describes the locations, movements, and goals of Warsaw Pact forces in their theoretical confrontation with NATO under the "Soyuz-75" military exercise.

  • March 21, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Combat Instruction No. 5 for Radioelectric Warfare of the Maritime Front

    This document provides combat instructions to Warsaw Pact military forces as part of the military exercise Soyuz-75.

  • March 22, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Combat Instruction No. 1 of the Maritime Front

    This document describes the developing military situation in the hypothetical "Soyuz-75" military exercise. The Polish Maritime Front has successfully defeated NATO after five days of battle and reached the Weser River in Germany, which empties into the North Sea. However, Western forces retain the capacity to remobilize. Therefore, the document directs the Maritime Front to establish a defense of its position on the North Sea.

  • March 24, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Combat Instruction No. 17 for Radioelectronic Warfare of the Maritime Front

    Part of the Soyuz-75 military exercise, this document updates the Warsaw Pact Maritime Front on the status of enemy communications capabilities. Due to their use of a nuclear weapon and conventional warfare, the Warsaw Pact forces have successfully disrupted enemy communication. The Maritime Front is now ordered to "suppress enemy radio relay communications" during impending military confrontations.

  • March 24, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Instructions

    In this hypothetical scenario, enemy forces have attacked Maritime Front troops with nuclear and chemical weapons. This document directs the troop leadership to modify their route to avoid contaminated areas, decontaminate all contaminated units, and repair and/or replenish their chemical equipment.

  • March 24, 1975

    Military Exercise Soyuz-75 Combat Instruction No. 04 of the Maritime Front

    Part of the Soyuz-75 military exercise, this document provides the Warsaw Pact Maritime Front with information on enemy losses and opportunities to mount an offensive strike. In this hypothetical scenario, the Maritime Front is charged with destroying enemy airfields, advancing westward, and occupying the North Sea coast, where their troops and allied navies will establish a defense of their position.

  • September 06, 1976

    Military Exercise Tarcza-76 Instruction No. 1 of the Northern Front for Protection Against Weapons of Mass Destruction

    This document describes a Warsaw Pact military exercise. The document describes the enemy's weapons of mass destruction capabilities, particularly with regards to nuclear weapons.

  • June, 1977

    Military Exercise VAL-77 Explanatory note to the concept of the operational-tactical exercise of allied fleets in the Baltic Sea, codenamed VAL-77

    This document provides an overview of the VAL-77 Warsaw Pact military exercise. Conducted in June and July 1977, the exercise simulated a joint seizure of the Baltic Straits region in order to provide practical operational experience and to improve coordination between ground, naval, and air forces. The exercise is predicated on a hypothetical scenario in which the "Westerners" initiate hostilities toward the "Easterners," prompting the Warsaw Pact allies to respond with force.

  • June 28, 1977

    Fala-77 Military Exercise Maritime Front Reconnaissance Plan for an Amphibious Assault Operation

    This document summarizes the objectives of a 1977 Warsaw Pact reconnaissance military exercise intended to gather information about enemy defensive capabilities on the islands off the coast of Denmark and Norway, particularly Zealand.

  • June 28, 1977

    Military Exercise Memorandum regarding the reconnaissance plan of the Maritime Front staff

    This document provides information on the reconnaissance capabilities of the Polish Maritime Front in the case that Eastern forces engage in combat in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

  • November 22, 1978

    Meeting of the Political Consultative Committee of the Warsaw Treaty Member Countries

    Meeting minutes taken by Romanian Ambassador Vasile Sandru at sessions of the Warsaw Treaty Political Consultative Committee, taking place in Moscow on 22-23 November 1978. Session I contains a speech by Leonid Brezhnev in which he discusses détente, Warsaw Pact economic cooperation, disarmament, national liberation movements, and relations with China, the Western countries, and Japan. In Session II and III political leaders of the other Warsaw member countries respond to Brezhnev’s speech. Session IV features a report by Commander-in-Chief Viktor Kulikov on the United Armed Forces. He recommends an increase in military expenditures. All of the leaders agree, except for Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania.

  • June 06, 1979

    Operational Directive from a Military Exercise Performed from June 6 to June 13, 1979

    This document is a simulation of a Warsaw Pact response to a hypothetical NATO conventional attack on the GDR and the Baltic region. It provides pathways of assault with specific coordinates for naval maneuvers and specific objectives to be achieved on each day of hostilities. The United Baltic Fleet is supposed to make its way as quickly as possible to the North Sea. The ground counteroffensive first is to defend the GDR and then attack the FRG and advance along its northern coast to the border with the Netherlands and France. Other counteroffensive measures included: an amphibious landing on Bornholm and other Danish Islands, destroying aircraft carriers in the North Sea and disrupting the offshore oil platforms there. The document specifies exact villages and towns that are to be used as objectives for individual operations, and finally notes which types of units and existing divisions are supposed to participate in the counteroffensive.

  • November 12, 1979

    Military Exercise Plan for Operational Assembly of the Baltic Sea Command (January 1980)

    This document describes a pending joint military exercise between Warsaw Pact members. The exercise has three stated purposes: to gain experience in conducting airborne-amphibious assaults; to improve techniques of collaboration between allied commanders; and to foster friendship and cohesion among the allied troops. Included in the document are tables detailing the exercise event schedule.

  • 1980

    Military Exercise Appendix No. 8: Combat Ready Men and Equipment of the Warsaw Pact Countries' Air Defense in the Maritime Sector

    This document details the composition of Warsaw Pact air forces.

  • 1980

    Military Exercise Report of the Decision of the Commander of the Maritime Front for an Offensive Operation

    A note to the Chief of Staff of the GDR People's Navy, this document assesses the enemy position and military capabilities in the Baltic Sea, the Jutland Peninsula, and the North Sea. The document notes that the NATO forces are capable of delivering nuclear weapons. The stated objective of the exercise is to remove the enemy's nuclear weapons capabilities, to defeat enemy forces defending the Jutland Peninsula, and thereby to create conditions under which Warsaw Pact forces may then reach the North Sea.

  • January 10, 1980

    Military Exercise Operational Task for a Command-Staff Map Exercise

    This document describes a theoretical military confrontation in which "Western" NATO forces declare war on the "Eastern" Warsaw forces. The document details the capabilities of the NATO forces on land and at sea.

  • January 14, 1980

    Military Exercise Combat Instruction No. 12/1 of the OBF

    This document describes joint naval exercises to be conducted in the Baltic Sea.

  • January 16, 1980

    Military Exercise Composition of the Assault Landing Formations

    This document details the composition of Warsaw Pact armed forces.

  • January 16, 1980

    Military Exercise Operational Directive of the Commander of the OBF

    This document evaluates the strength of NATO forces in the Baltic Sea and provides instructions for forthcoming naval exercises to win control of the southern part of the Baltic Sea, to conduct an amphibious assault, and to win control of the eastern part of the North Sea.