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Digital Archive International History Declassified

November 30, 1987

INFORMATION ON THE 20TH SESSION OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE MINISTERS OF DEFENSE OF WARSAW PACT MEMBER STATES

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    Report on the course and results of the 20th Session of the Committee of Ministers of Defense of Warsaw Pact Member States held in Bucharest on November 24-25, 1987.
    "Information on the 20th Session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense of Warsaw Pact Member States," November 30, 1987, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Archives of the Ministry of National Defense, No.: 033438-84/1987 https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/110290
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Minister of National Defense

No.: 0033438-84/1987

November 30, 1987

Prague

Dear comrade general secretary CC CPC [Central Committee of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia] and president of the CSSR [the Czechoslovakian Socialistic Republic].

With your approval I took place in the 20th session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense of Warsaw Pact member states held in Bucharest on November 24-25, 1987. I submit you an attachment that consists of [a] an information concerning the course and results of the session and [b] passed resolutions for each single item of that session. I sent prime minister of Czechoslovakia the copy of that attachment.

Sincerely,

Dear comrade

Gustav Husak

General Secretary of CC CPC

and President of Czechoslovakia

Praha

President took notice of that information

Chief of PMO

(President's Military Office)

Minister of National Defense

No: 0033438-84/1987

Top Secret

Attachment No: 1

Copy No:

Number of Pages: 16

Information about the course and results of the 20th session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense of Warsaw Pact member states held in Bucharest on November 24-25, 1987.

The 20th session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense of Warsaw Pact member states was held under chairmanship of the Minister of National Defense of Romania general colonel Vasile Milea in Bucharest on November 24-25, 1987. All members of the Committee of Ministers of Defense took part in that session.

Each single item of the session was discussed. See below:

1. The Methodology of an operative and fighting preparation of the allied armies and ways of its innovation according to doctrine of Warsaw pact member states contained in a document authorized during Berlin consultation of the Politic Consultative Committee [of Warsaw Pact] (May 1987) and in the final document of Stockholm Convention.

No main report was held but according to schedule [of the conference] the Ministers of Defense and Head Commander of the Joined Armies had speeches. The Minister of Defense of the USSR army general D. T. Jazov said that in spite of little progress in reducing armament, i.e. destroying Romanian and Soviet missiles of short and medium range in Europe world situation was still high-strung. So, this situation required high vigilance and permanent work on reinforcement of defense of our countries.

[Jazov] said, that current operative and fighting preparation system was successful and [Jazov] appreciated the effect of joined trainings, for example, Sojuz [Union], Stit [Shield], Druzba [Friendship], Granit [Granite]. During those trainings means of coordination and command of troops of the joined armies were practiced.

[Jazov] rectified main ways of military preparation according to defensive character of our military doctrine.

[Jazov] noticed, that it was necessary to practice Beforehand Prepared Defense. We didn't accept this defense because of force. Our military defense claimed not to open fire as first and we had to use each means to prevent a war. During preparation of defensive operation and defensive fight it was necessary to teach our commanders, staffs and troops how to be active, initiative and how to conduct huge firing strikes, contra attacks and contra rushes. Every commander had to be able to put over a fight on enemy's soil as soon as possible. The fight should be conduct with using not only conventional but also nuclear weapons. Those matters have to be reflected during all prepared trainings. It is necessary to solve duties under the situation both sides of potential conflict have the same resources and military power. Under that condition success could be reached only if we use our formations smart and concentrate them on the main direction of our campaign on time.

[Jazov] pointed out some matters concerning a development of military education and its influence on preparation of our formations. He also noticed that a final document of Stockholm Conference, in some ways, influenced military trainings. In this context [Stockholm Conference], [Jazov] emphasized that it was necessary to keep back new types of armament and military technique and underlined that a quality of exemplary trainings that are visited by observers, couldn't be restrict by their presence. Additional information concerning NATO's war preparation should be gain during inspections of enemy armies.

At the end of his speech [Jazov] said that good defense of peaceful socialistic work would become duty of all brotherhood armies.

Head Commander of the Joint Armies, marshal of the USSR V.G. Kulikov stated that joined trainings where staffs and troops of a few allied armies took part in were successful and effective. In this case he made a connection with training Sojuz-87 [Union-87]' Presence of the ministers of defense of the SSSR [USSR], NOR [East Germany], PLR [Poland] and CSSR [Czechoslovakia] was great acquisition.

Furthermore, he referred to some defects in the operative and fighting preparation.

These defects consist in a schematic solution of [fighting] situations and mis-estimation of enemy skills, especially in its ability to make a contra attack. According to those matters mentioned above it is necessary to implement new thinking among commanders. The new thinking is based on understanding that offensive activity is not forbidden by new military doctrine. On the contrary where it is possible it is necessary to begin wit attack as soon as possible enemy starts with war campaign.

He [Kulikov] explained the ways of the advanced operative and fighting preparation to us. First the Headquarters on the battleground should be more involved to an operative preparation procedure. Second the Headquarters should improve a methodology of preparation of the unions of the joined formations; implement unified formalized documents and a work methodology. Way how to enhance an importance of Command-Staff trainings follows. Only the most essential information should be given to formations during military trainings. Feeler formations would play more important role.

At the end he [Kulikov] expressed certitude that Joined Headquarters, together with the Ministers of Defense of the allied countries, would provide further development of combat emergency of the Joined Armies and their preparation for good defense of Warsaw Pact member states.

In my speech I [the Minister of Defense of Czechoslovakia gen. Vaclavik] said that Headquarter of the CSLA [Popular Army of Czechoslovakia] was aware of great effort of the USSR and other socialistic countries to preserve world peace as well as effort to give up arms race and extend a process of detente in a military area.

Despite the progress in negotiation between the Soviet Union and the United States of America we can see the West trying not only to keep current position of confrontation but also reach dominance over the socialistic countries. Therefore the CSLA [Popular Army of Czechoslovakia], together with the Soviet Army and other member state armies of Warsaw Pact, has to be prepared for a good defense and providing security for CSSR [Socialistic Republic of Czechoslovakia] and socialistic countries.

I pointed out a great importance of defensive military doctrine passed during Berlin session of the Politic Consultative Committee of member states of Warsaw Pact. At the same time I mentioned that after passing that document we needed new plans and methodizes of planning and processing of operative and fighting preparation. I mentioned the means of preparation of commanders, staffs and formations in the Czechoslovak army. Furthermore I talked about contents, means and methodology of field and air trainings. These trainings should be more effective as well as work of commanders and staffs during planning, preparation and conducting of the trainees.

I emphasized a great importance of allied operative-strategic and command-staff trainings (Sojuz, Stit, Granit). The meaning of the trainings consists in general preparation of conducting coalition armies, cooperation among national formations and information exchange concerning the operative preparation within Joined military forces.

I summarized our [Romanian-Slovakian] good experience with complex pursuance of a fighting preparation and permanently developing of an [military] educational level in our bases. This good experience concerns even tactic trainings, which are influenced by the final document of Stockholm conference.

At the end of my speech I assured members of Committee of the Ministers that the Headquarter of the CSLA would permanently improve fighting and mobilization emergency as well as preparedness of commanders, staffs and troops. The measures mentioned above are necessary for reliable defense of CSSR and all socialistic camp.

Other ministers of defense in their speeches supported a decision that common command-staff and troops training, similar to Sojuz, Granit, Stit, Druzba, should be held. It is also necessary to improve the operative and fighting preparation regarding Warsaw Pact military doctrine, evolution of fighting instruments and changes in the art of war.

2. The situation of the Joined system of Anti-Air Defense /PVO/ of Warsaw Pact member states and measures for its further improvement.

At the beginning of his speech army general I. M. Tretjak, commander of PVO [the Anti-Air Forces] of Warsaw Pact member states mentioned an effort of the NATO headquarter to get superiority to Warsaw Pact. He emphasized a great effort of NATO to achieve a high emergency level of means of air strike and its equipment by new types of high precision weapons and means of radio-electronic fight.

He said, that we had to consider anti-air defense as an important strategic issue especially at first period of war because of defensive character of the military doctrine of Warsaw Pact member states and an increase of the enemy's fighting means of the air strike mentioned above.

According to those matters the anti-air defense needs improving as soon as possible. Especially a creation of command system, which has been outlined in peaceful time, is important. The command system is supposed to lead the Anti-Air Forces at time of first military actions of Joined Military Forces. It includes also changes of command posts at wartime.

He brought necessity to use the feeler formations of the Anti-Air Defense, army groups and Navy of brotherhood armies effectively to our attention as well as necessity to create radio-electronic formations of the Anti-Air Defense.

He mentioned necessity to include every formation of the radio-electronic fight to the Anti-Air Defense emergency system. He reminded relation between fighting potentiality of the Anti-Air Defense formations and level of new armament of the Anti-Air Defense. In accordance with things mentioned above he emphasized need of cooperation among Warsaw Pact member states due to organization of armament produce and necessity of service life prolongation of fighting means and anti-missiles complexes.

At the end of his speech he told that observance of objectives relevant to the formations of the Joined system of the Anti-Air Defense would help to improve its fighting emergency as well as fighting alliance of socialistic community.

Goals of [Tretjak'] speech were backed up by the members of the Committee of the ministers of defense and accredited members of country delegations. At the same time these speakers talked about current situation and possibilities of further development of that problem. [Anti-Air Defense].

Head Commander of the Joined forces marshal of the Soviet Union V. G. Kulikov had a speech concerning that problem [Anti-Air Defense]. He emphasized necessity to improve a level of quality of radio locative scope and innovation of radio-technical means including civil means. It is necessary to have common training with the means [of radio-electronic fights] to prevent enemy breaking our air space.

Furthermore he talked about good experience with improving of the anti-air defense of CSSR through the system of visual observation in a border area. He also talked about use of L-39 aircrafts and Mi-24 helicopters for this purpose. He called on other member states to implement this [Romanian-Slovakian] experience in their armies. At the same time he asked me [the minister of defense of Czechoslovakia] for production growth of the Romanian-Slovakian aircraft L-39, which would be used for a need of member states of Warsaw Pact.

At the end he emphasized that it was necessary to create a joined command system of the Anti-Air Forces on the battlegrounds in relation to a principle of strictly centralization in every coalition formation. For this purpose it would be necessary to change a status of the Joined system of the Anti-Air Forces of Warsaw Pact member states.

I entrusted general lieutenant J. Matyas with a speech concerning this topic. He [Matyas] agreed with goals mentioned in [Kulik's] speech and talked about the present and the future of that topic [Anti-Air Defense] in CSLA. He mentioned some measures, which had been adopted to enhance fighting possibilities of the anti-air defense of the country.

Furthermore he mentioned duties supposed to be solved in a section of the Anti-Air Defense armament and improving its fighting emergency. He noticed necessity to work out a general concept of development of the Anti-Air Forces on the western battleground to be able to use every means of the Anti-Air Defense of the country, Anti-Air Defense of Land Forces and Fighter Air Forces, if these forces are located in the same fighter area.

3. The NATO opinion on psychological war making. The experience and duties of political-ideological fight with imperialistic propaganda in the allied armies.

A representative of the ministry of national defense of NDR [German Democratic Republic] general colonel H. Brilnner and a representative of the ministry of national defense RSR [Romanian Socialistic Republic] general colonel M. Nikolesku had speeches on that topic. Furthermore other representatives had speeches on that topic.

At the beginning of his speech general colonel H. Bruenner emphasized importance of that topic and explained the NATO opinion on the psychological war making. He said that enemy propaganda paid attention to unity of the socialistic community and policy of Marxist-Leninist parties. At the same time

West German mass media started to coordinate single means of propaganda in order to influence both social and individual mental state of inhabitants as well as their feelings and emotions especially intent on the youth.

At another part of his speech he was interested in a progress of the psychological war. In accordance with possibility of reduction of [international] tension a number of ideological and psychological attacks against inhabitants and military forces of Warsaw Pact member states is going to rise. So, that is why we have to strengthen fight with imperialistic propaganda. This fight is a part of entire ideological-political work. First of all we have to strengthen socialistic-class awareness.

At the end of his speech he noticed that it was necessary to practice the struggle against enemy psychological war during military trainings. He recommended cooperating and exchanging information among special propagandistic formations of Warsaw Pact member states armies.

Having characterized international situations general colonel M. Nikolesku analyzed goals of imperialistic propaganda concerning socialistic countries. He mentioned a military-political dimension of the imperialistic propaganda, which is intent on concealing of arms race and accelerating of modernization process of NATO forces. He stated that NATO countries used psychological war on every levels of fighting action. He analyzed organization structure of NATO

formations and units intended for participating in the psychological war. He also mentioned opinions of NATO military specialists on the psychological war. He proved those issues by using examples from fights in Grenada, the Falkland Islands, Israel-Arab conflict and the Iraq-Iran war.

At the second part of his speech he emphasized a role of ideological-political

work in fight with imperialistic, anticommunist propaganda. He analyzed conception of Romanian Communist Party due to that work, which is necessary especially in the Army for rising of soldiers' devotion to socialism and communism in Romania as well as for rising of their consciousness and for making a new human being [communist term]. Education of revolutionary-socialistic patriotism and determination of all Romanian inhabitants to defend revolutionary gains is under permanent attention.

Furthermore he showed on methods and forms of party work in this sphere [ideological-political work] and underlined the meaning of military education provided by spirit of international solidarity and strengthening of unity of Warsaw Pact member states.

At the end he emphasized that ideological-political work is making systematically in the Romanian army. He mentioned determination of Romanian military forces to stand to accepted commitment within the framework of Warsaw Pact.

In their speeches the representatives of the other delegations supported issues derived from main reports. They generalized knowledge and experience gained by their armies in sphere of fight with the imperialistic propaganda.

4. The schedule of the 21 st session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense of Warsaw pact member states The Chief of Staff of the Joined Military Forces army general A. I. Gribkov had a speech concerning this topic.

All members of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense agreed with proposal that the 21 st sessions of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense would be held in the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics under chairmanship of the soviet Minister of Defense in June 1988. The program of session follows:

1. The present situation and the future prospect of NATO military forces evolution

and its infrastructure on European battlegrounds till year 2000.

2. The general direction of the Joined Military Forces evolution and its armament

for year 1991-1995.

3. The schedule of the 22nd session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense.

A speech of the Chief of Staff of the Joined Military Forces.

The resolutions on every item topic of the 20th session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense were approved. I hereby [minister of defense of Czechoslovakia] pass their translations. All members of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense accepted a layout of public press information about the 20th sessions of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense with one accord.

At the end of the 20th sessions of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense the Protocol was signed.

At the last speech chairman of the session the Minister of National Defense of Romanian Socialistic Republic thanked to all members of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense to the members of delegations of the brotherhood armies as well as to the members of the Joined Command for active and initiative attitude to all problem solution. He emphasized the importance of this session for strengthening of Warsaw Pact members state defense, especially under current complicated international situation. He expressed opinion that passed resolutions would be fully realized in order to enhance the fighting emergency of the Joined Military Forces. He hand over the chairmanship of the 21 st sessions of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense which would be held in Moscow in June 1988 to the Minister of Defense of the USSR. Army general D. T. Jazov thanked for assurance. He invited all members of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense at the 21 st session to Moscow. He said that the soviet military forces would make their best accomplish the duties of this session. During the session I [minister of defense of Czechoslovakia] signed the Protocol on budget of the Joined Military Forces for year 1988 and evaluation of1986 budget as I had been told by the 38th session of the Council of Country Defense.

After completing the program of the 20th session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense discussion on military-technical part of Warsaw Pact members state Doctrine was held as well as discussion on building and preparation of military forces. The Minister of Defense of the USSR army general D. T. Jazov spoke as first. He emphasized that the main idea of military doctrine approved during Berlin session of the Political Consultative Committee is war prevention. This objective needs analyzing the present and the future situation of armament evolution not only within own military forces but also within enemy military forces. This objective also needs taking decision to preserve military-strategic balance and to fight off potential aggression.

Furthermore he analyzed the military-technical part of Doctrine. It is based on its military-political character and it is determining for a form of potential war, means of preparation and use of the military forces. Under the current conditions it is necessary to think about a possibility to conduct a world war not only without nuclear weapons but also with them. More than ever before, higher requirements are put on an army command and its fighting and mobilization preparation.

He [Jazov] clarified basic questions considering the strategic defensive operations, which are followed by the offensive attack actions. He emphasized that in those areas where it was preferable it was possible to conduct the active offensive actions from the beginning of aggression. For that purpose the activity of all groups, unions and formations has to be scheduled and prepared in the peaceful time. At the end he noticed, that it was necessary to look for new ways of the operative and the fighting preparations of the army and the navy command.

The head Commander of the Joined Military Forces marshal of the Soviet Union V. G. Kulikov undertook the influence of the military doctrine on further building and development of the military forces. It is necessary to solve problems resulted from this topic according to the principles of preservation of the military balance. He underlined growing demands on the fighting emergency of the Joined Military Forces. Having evaluated real power of the probable enemy he said that it would be necessary to strengthen the first-line formations and to keep the second-line formations on high emergency level because of growing effort at the beginning of a war. In according with that matter he asked for higher criticality toward the solutions of our collective defense. He also told not to take on pacifistic tendencies.

At the end he answered to speeches of the ministers of defense and he noticed, that it would be necessary to change a role and position of the Technical Committee of the Joined Military Forces in order to be more effective by reason for coordinating of the development and armament of our armies. These questions have to be submitted for approval to the Politic Consultative Committee.

At the beginning of my speech I [minister of defense of Czechoslovakia] backed up the topic the soviet minister of defense talked about. Furthermore J noticed that a plan for saving of demands derived from political-technical part of doctrine was prepared in our army. The first-riding mission is the enhancing and innovation of the fighting and mobilization emergency of CSLA. We have to make conditions for a hidden transition of the army from the peaceful to fighting level.

The fighting emergency of the command officials, connecting [transmitting] formations, feeler formations and radio-electronic fight formations is more important than the fighting emergency of other formations. We are thinking about selecting formations for destroying of targets dislocated in enemy first-line and about manners how to conduct these formation during firing.  In accordance with the demands on conducting of the defensive operation I said that it was important to organize our defense in order not to commit a bigger loss of our land. For this purpose we will work on precautions, which make use of special terrain in the area of our country border. I pointed out necessity to come to time commitment concerning delivery of armament and military technology among allied armies.

At the beginning 1 emphasized, that command of CSLA was aware of necessity to work on base of close cooperation among all friendly countries. Only using this way we can stand to difficult duties resulting from Berlin session of the Political Consultant Committee and we can safe our good defense.

The Other members of the Committee of the Ministers also supported the results following from the speech of the Minister of Defense of the Soviet Union army general D.T. Jazov. They referred to some particularities in serving duties of the military-technical part of the military doctrine.

During the session of the Committee of the Ministers of Defense I [minister of defense of Czechoslovakia] met the Minister of Defense of the USSR army general D. T. Jazov. We talked about issues concerning reciprocal supplies of the system of conducting of firing called KLADIVO [HAMMER], which is intended for the modernization of tank T-55A and 20 anti-tank missile complexes called BASTION [BASTILE]. We also talked about concentrating our effort on experimental and developing program, specialization of military technique repairs and introduction of new types of [military] technique /a system of conducting of firing of tank T-72S called PALCAT [MACE], mortar called PRAM [RAFT] and command feeler fighting vehicle called SVATAVA [female name]/.

I asked the soviets for not admitting the clearance of our active balance of account, which reaches 600 million rubles. This might be possible if they don't take from us some types of military technique.

Comrade Jazov assured me of taking 100 pieces of the system of conducting of firing called KLADIVO in next year. They are going to take 1000 pieces [of this system] in the other years of this Five-Year Plan. During the 9th Five-Year Plan they are going to take 500-700 pieces every year. He confirmed the supplies of the anti-missile complexes called BASTION for CSLA. The issues of the experimental and developing program will take into consideration and the problem of active balance of account will be disused in government offices. General Secretary of the CC [Central Committee] of the Romanian Communist Party and president of the Romanian Socialistic Republic Nicolae Ceausesku met the members of the Committee of Ministers of Defense at noon on the 26th of November.

The minister of Defense of the Soviet Union army general D. T. Jazov let him [Ceausescu] know the course and results of the session of the Committee of Ministers.

Comrade Ceausesku said, that he was familiar with the negotiations of the Committee of Ministers. He also said, that the session was successful and brought new experience which would be used for rising of the fighting emergency and preparation of the Joined Military Forces. He emphasized the meaning of the unity of the socialistic countries and necessity to deepen their cooperation and cross support.

He mentioned shortly the observance of the duties passed during the 13th Congress of the Communist Party of Romania and the measures, which have been passing by the Central Committee and government to implement the results of Berlin session of the Political Consultative Committee.

Furthermore he told us that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania was preparing an all country party conference, which would be held in the December 1987. This conference should be interested in the growth of living standard.

At the end comrade Ceausescu thanked members of the Committee of Ministers of Defense for good cooperation in strengthening of the defense of Warsaw Pact members states. He asked me for delivering of comradely greetings to you, dear comrade general secretary of the UV [CC] of the KSC [CPC] and president of Czechoslovakia, prime minister, politburo and all members of the CC.

I asked you, dear comrade general secretary of the CC of the CPC and president of Czechoslovakia, for approval of the appearance of CSLA delegation during the 20th session of the Committee of Ministers of Defense.