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Digital Archive International History Declassified

August 19, 1964

REPORT ON HOW CHINA'S ECONOMIC CONSTRUCTION SHOULD PREPARE ITSELF AGAINST AN ENEMY SURPRISE ATTACK

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    China’s economic preparations against an enemy attack.
    "Report on How China's Economic Construction Should Prepare Itself Against an Enemy Surprise Attack," August 19, 1964, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Dangde wenxian (Party Documents) 3 (1995), 33-34. Translated by Qiang Zhai. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/111515
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"Report on How Our Country's Economic Construction Should Prepare Itself Against an Enemy Surprise Attack" by Li Fuchun, Bo Yibo, and Luo Ruiqing, 19 August 1964.

Chairman [Mao Zedong], and the Central Committee:


In accordance with Chairman's comments on the General Staff War Department's report of how our country's economic construction should prepare itself for a surprise attack by the enemy, we have gathered comrades with responsibility in these areas for a meeting. All of us agree that Chairman's comments and the War Department's report are extremely important. We must pay serious attention to and do our best on such an important issue concerning our country's strategic defense. The meeting has decided:


(1) To establish a special committee on this case within the State Council. We suggest that the committee consist of thirteen people including Li Fuchun, Li Xiannian, Tan Zhenlin, Bo Yibo, Luo Ruiqing, Xie Fuzhi, Yang Chengwu, Zhang Jichun, Zhao Erlu, Cheng Zihua, Gu Mu, Han Guang, and Zhou Rongxin. Li Fuchun serves as Director, and Bo Yibo and Luo Ruiqing Deputy Directors.


(2) In addition to the four areas mentioned by the War Department, our preparation measures also need to include universities and colleges, scientific research and planning institutions, warehouses, government departments and institutions as well as civil shelters in cities and mines. We must follow Chairman's principle of "careful study and gradual implementation" in conducting our investigation into various areas as early as possible and pay attention to the following issues.


(a) All new construction projects will not be placed in the First Front, especially not in the fifteen big cities with over a million population.


(b) For those currently on-going construction projects in the First Front and particularly in the fifteen big cities, except those that can be completed and put into effective operation next year or the year after, all the rest must be reduced in size, undergo no expansion, and be concluded as soon as possible.


(c) For existing old enterprises, especially those in cities with high industrial concentration, we must remove them or some of their workshops. Particularly for military and machinery enterprises, we must break them in two parts if possible, and shift one part to the Third and Second Fronts. If we can remove them as a whole, we must do that with careful planning and in steps.


(d) Beginning in next year, no new large and medium-size reservoirs will be built.


(e) For key national universities and colleges, scientific research and planning institutes in the First Front, if they can be removed, we must relocate them to the Third and Second Fronts with careful planning. If they can not be removed, we must break them into two parts.

(f) From now on, all new projects, in whatever Front they will be located, must comply with the principle of dispersion, closeness to mountains, and concealment. They must not be concentrated in certain cities or areas.


We have divided labor to deal with the above work:


(a) The State Economic Commission and the State Planning Commission will be responsible for the arrangement of the industrial and transportation systems.


(b) The Ministry of Railway will be responsible for preparation measures concerning railroad junctions.


(c) The Office of National Defense Industry will be responsible for the arrangement of national defense industry.


(d) The General Staff will be responsible for the division of the First, Second, and Third Fronts on the national level and for the arrangement of national defense fortifications and war preparation mobilizations.


(e) Comrade Tan Zhenlin will be responsible for preparation measures concerning reservoirs.


(f) Comrades Zhang Jichun and Han Guang will be responsible for the arrangement of universities and colleges, scientific research and planning institutes.


(g) Comrade Zhou Rongxin will be responsible for the protection of city buildings and government departments and institutions.


We will spend the months of September and October investigating the various aspects and produce detailed plans that can be implemented gradually. The special committee will synthesize the plans before submitting them to the Central Committee for inclusion in the general plan for the next year and in the Third Five-Year Plan.


(3) We propose to revive the People's Anti-Air Committee. Premier
[5] should still serve as Director and Comrade Xie Fuzhi as Secretary General (Comrade Luo Ruiqing was Secretary General originally). The Ministry of Public Safety will be responsible for the daily work of the committee.


We should restore the Planning Office for the Construction of Underground Railway in Beijing and carry out an active preparation for the building of underground railway in Beijing. In the meantime, we should consider the construction of underground railway in Shanghai and Shenyang. The Ministry of Railway will be responsible for this task.


(4) If the central leadership approves the above suggestions, we propose to distribute our report along with the General Staff War Department report as well as Chairman's comments as guidelines to all Party Bureaus, to all provincial, municipal, and district Party committees, and to all Party committees within government ministries.


Please inform us whether our report is correct.


Li Fuchun, Bo Yibo, Luo Ruiqing
August 19, 1964.