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Digital Archive International History Declassified

July 31, 1956


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    This Chinese report on Pakistani diplomatic activities focused on a visit by Pakistani President Mirza to Turkey. The talks revolved around two main topics: The Cyprus issue and the Kashmir dispute.
    "Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'The Main Themes of Pakistan’s Diplomatic Activities During the Past Month'," July 31, 1956, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, PRC FMA 105-0779-04, 18-20. Obtained by Sulmaan Khan and translated by Anna Beth Keim.
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Copy to: Zhang, Zhang [Wenji], Ji [Pengfei], Peng, He, Liu, Qiao, General Office, Soviet and European Affairs Department, Asian Affairs Department, Western European Affairs Department, American and Oceanian Affairs Department, Asian and African Affairs Department, Department of International Affairs, Information Department, Personnel Office, Protocol Department, Consular Affairs Department, General Affairs Department, Research Office, Treaty Committee, Party Committee, [Meng] Yongqian

From the Desk of the Ambassador to Pakistan

Priority: Extremely Urgent

Received: 8 75

31 July 1956

Already Copied To: Chairman, [Liu] Shaoqi, [Zhou] Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yun, [Peng] Dehuai, [Deng] Xiaoping, Chen Yi, [Xi] Zhongxun, [Yang] Shangkun, Hu Qiaomu, [Wang] Jiaxiang, [Li] Kenong, Lu Dingyi, Propaganda Department [of the CPC Central Committee], International Department [of the CPC Central Committee], Investigation Department [of the CPC Central Committee], Military Intelligence, Deng Tuo, Yang Gang, [Wu] Lengxi, Steering Committee, [Li] Enqiu

The Main Themes of Pakistan’s Diplomatic Activities During the Past Month

Foreign Ministry:

To break away from its isolated position among nations and seek support on the Kashmir issue, Pakistan has launched a series of diplomatic activities over the past month. Pakistan’s prime minister, following the Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference, paid visits to France and Saudi Arabia, and at one point planned to visit Lebanon and Syria. The Pakistani foreign minister visited France, Switzerland, and Austria. When Pakistani President Mirza visited Turkey from 15 to 29 July he received a lavish welcome from the Turkish authorities, in reciprocation for the Turkish President’s visit to Pakistan. The goals were:

(1) To demonstrate to the world the “vitality” of the Baghdad Pact;

(2) To strengthen the relationship with Turkey, asking Turkey to support Pakistan on the Kashmir issue and conduct diplomatic mediations between Pakistan and Afghanistan with a favorable bias toward Pakistan;

(3) To reduce the role and influence of neutralism;

(4) To join together in asking the United States to increase aid to Pakistan and Turkey.

Judging from the results of the talks, Pakistan reaffirmed its support for Turkey on the Cyprus issue. Turkey expressed support for Pakistan’s requests on the Kashmir issue. Turkey has already agreed to diplomatic mediation in the dispute between Pakistan and Afghanistan over the Baluchistan issue, to be conducted by the Turkish prime minister, who arrived in Afghanistan on the 27th. Turkey will also urge NATO nations to support Pakistan’s position on the Kashmir issue. The two nations emphasized the importance of military relations, and at the Baghdad Pact Council next January they will raise the issues of establishing an Allied Command and tactical air force, asking the United States to give more aid. As for neutralism, although both sides stated that they did not condone it, Mirza’s tone was “either will do” and ambiguous. On the 28th, he said: in a world where distances are shrinking more and more, to speak of neutralism is like reciting a romantic poem. But he also said that “coexistence means fully respecting other nations’ sovereignty and independence and complete non-interference in their internal affairs,” “amity and cooperation,” and using “peaceful negotiation and mediation to resolve differences.” In Turkey’s parliament on the 17th, he said: “It is only through strong, active, constructive actions that peace can be maintained. We do not at all believe that peace can only be maintained through the force of power politics. In terms of strengthening the two countries’ economic relationship, both sides confirmed that they would sign a trade agreement and develop civil aviation among the Baghdad Pact nations. But in reality the prospects for the two nations developing trade are not at all great. All the Middle Eastern nations, even Iran and Iraq, have reacted coolly to the Pakistan-Turkey talks. Although Mirza said when leaving Turkey that Turkey and Pakistan were already firmly linked together through the Baghdad Pact, this was obviously mostly for propaganda effect. The Pakistani people and even official opinion have also reacted coolly to Mirza’s visit to Turkey. Neither Ali nor the Pakistani foreign minister have achieved the anticipated goals in their visits abroad, and have met with a cool reception everywhere. The rumor, that the reason Ali hasn’t visited Syria or Lebanon is because neither would possibly support Pakistan’s stance on the Kashmir issue, may have some truth to it. On the 28th, Ali returned full of complaints, publicly grumbling that domestic political infighting, scheming and intrigue, and lack of active support for himself, had lowered Pakistan’s international status and causing the Janus-faced policy to suffer defeat in the struggle of foreign diplomacy. He is going to put forward his political program at the joint conference of the ruling party and parliamentary party and organizations, and require all sides to support his independent handling of matters. Otherwise, he will take free actions that he believes to be beneficial to Pakistan. The more important reason [he] did not dare, in this statement, to publicly admit defeat in the struggle of foreign diplomacy is that Pakistan will not withdraw from the aggressive military bloc and plans to rely on imperialism to solve the Kashmir issue, and also is still emphasizing Kashmir’s public referendum. But regardless of what happens, these matters will cause Pakistan’s ruling circle to make a relatively clear appraisal of their international predicament and possibly further adopt relatively realistic foreign diplomatic policies; that is, further improve relations with our nation, the Soviet Union and other nations with people’s democracies. When Ali returned, he also publicly issued a statement attacking others, leading to yet another upheaval in Pakistan’s political situation. This situation will be reported on separately.

[Chinese] Embassy in Pakistan

31 July 1956

Telegram received on the 2nd, 1 a.m. Printed on the 2nd, 4:17 p.m.