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Digital Archive International History Declassified

September 11, 1956

CABLE FROM THE CHINESE EMBASSY IN PAKISTAN, 'THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF PAKISTAN’S RECENT DIPLOMATIC ACTIVITIES'

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    Chinese report on Pakistani diplomatic activities regarding the Soviet Union and other Muslim countries
    "Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, 'The Circumstances of Pakistan’s Recent Diplomatic Activities'," September 11, 1956, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, PRC FMA 105-00779-04, 23-24. Obtained by Sulmaan Khan and translated by Anna Beth Keim https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/114886
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Copy to: Zhang, Zhang [Wenji], Ji [Pengfei], Liu, Qiao, General Office, Soviet and European Affairs Department, Asian Affairs Department, Western European Affairs Department, American and Oceanian Affairs Department, Asian and African Affairs Department, Department of International Affairs, Information Department, Personnel Department, Protocol Department, Consular Affairs Department, General Affairs Department, Research Office, Treaty Committee, Party Committee, [Meng] Yongqian, Ambassador Chen, Ambassador Geng

From the Desk of the Ambassador to Pakistan

Priority: Urgent

Received: 9 725

11 September 1956

Already Copied To: Chairman, [Liu] Shaoqi, [Zhou] Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yun, [Peng] Dehuai, [Deng] Xiaoping, Chen Yi, [Xi] Zhongxun, [Yang] Shangkun, [Hu] Qiaomu, [Wang] Jiaxiang, [Li] Kenong, [Lu] Dingyi, Propaganda Department, International Department [of the CPC Central Committee], Investigation Department, Military Intelligence, Deng Tuo, Yang Gang, [Wu] Lengxi, Steering Committee, [Li] Enqiu

The Circumstances of Pakistan’s Recent Diplomatic Activities

[To the] Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Pakistan has recently been occupied with managing an internal political crisis, and there have been few diplomatic activities. Judging from recent diplomatic activities, [the theme] is mainly strengthening relations with other “Muslim” countries. Pakistani President Mirza paid visits to Turkey and Afghanistan during July and August [1956], and plans to pay visits to Iran and Iraq in November. It is said that the Pakistani government is currently negotiating and concluding a cultural agreement with Turkey and Iraq. Pakistan and Iran will also soon sign a commerce treaty and a residency treaty. The Pakistani ruling circle is doing things this way in order to mitigate the Pakistani people’s dissatisfaction with diplomatic policies, duping the people with “Muslim” nations as a pretense. On the other hand, they plan through the abovementioned activities to put Baghdad Pact activities on display and solve their economic problems by gaining a relatively large amount of American aid. Due to British and American pressure—especially the increase in American pressure and American aid—Pakistan has been vacillating even more on foreign policy; Pakistan’s stance on the Suez [Canal] issue is one example. The Pakistani-American double tax-exemption agreement has recently been drafted, and will go into effect as soon as the two nations’ governments approve it. On the other hand, there has been definite improvement in Pakistan’s relations with the Soviet Union and Soviet-bloc European countries. A Pakistani parliamentary delegation visited the Soviet Union in late July, and the delegation head, Zhanghuluo (member of the Muslim League, former lieutenant-governor of Sindh), stated upon their return to Pakistan, “If we pledge to implement independent foreign diplomatic policy, the Soviet Union is willing to help us.” He also stated that Pakistani foreign policy is “a total failure.” The general reaction of the delegation to the Soviet Union was relatively good; they understood that the Soviet Union hopes to improve relations with Pakistan. Pakistan’s ambassador to the Soviet Union has taken up his official post, as of 22 August. The Pakistani-Soviet trade agreement also went into effect in late August following approval by the two nations’ governments. Pakistan also has trade agreements with the Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The mood of dissatisfaction with the Pakistan government’s foreign policy intensifies daily among Pakistani people from all walks of life. The Pakistan government’s stance on the Suez Canal issue is not only opposed by the Pakistani people, but has also met with denunciation by Egypt and other Middle East countries. Pakistan’s prestige in the Middle East sinks lower by the day, and there are also no improvements in its international status. All of this is bound to force Pakistan’s ruling circle to consider their predicament in a relatively clear light, and to further change foreign policy, but this change will inevitably be gradual. Now the Awami League has successfully formed a government cabinet in East Pakistan; if the East Pakistan Awami League can occupy close to half the seats in the central cabinet, in will have further impacts on change in Pakistani foreign policy.

[Chinese] Embassy in Pakistan

11 September 1956

Received by station on the 13th, 1:50 a.m.

Received by [office] machine on the 13th at 1:59 a.m. Printed on the 14th, 7:10 a.m.