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Digital Archive International History Declassified

January 18, 1952

MEMORANDUM OF CONVERSATION, SOVIET AMBASSADOR TO CHINA N.V. ROSHCHIN WITH CHINESE MINISTER OF PUBLIC SECURITY LUO RUIQING, 24 DECEMBER 1951

This document was made possible with support from the Leon Levy Foundation

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    In the course of the discussion the matter of the proposed purge by the Chinese government of foreigners in Manchuria was raised. Luo Ruiqing said that the Chinese government intends to purge a series of regions of the country of unreliable elements: Manchuria, Qingdao, and Beijing. In the course of two years from these regions all foreigners of imperialist states will be deported. It’s more difficult to address the matter of local Soviet citizens. Among these local Soviet citizens there are dispersed columns of openly and secretly hostile elements, who have conducted in the past or carry on now espionage activities against the USSR and the Chinese People’s Republic.
    "Memorandum of Conversation, Soviet Ambassador to China N.V. Roshchin with Chinese Minister of Public Security Luo Ruiqing, 24 December 1951 ," January 18, 1952, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF f. 0100, op. 45, p. 343, d. 12, l. 1-3. Obtained and translated for CWIHP by Austin Jersild. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116801
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From the diary of

N.V. ROSHCHIN

Secret.  Copy No. 2

18 January 1952

No. 12

MEMORANDUM OF CONVERSATION

USSR Ambassador in the Chinese People’s Republic, N.V. ROSHCHIN,

with the Ministry of Public Security of the PRC, LUO RUIQING from 24 December 1951

In the course of the discussion the matter of the proposed purge by the Chinese government of foreigners in Manchuria was raised.  Luo Ruiqing said that the Chinese government intends to purge a series of regions of the country of unreliable elements:  Manchuria, Qingdao, and Beijing.  In the course of two years from these regions all foreigners of imperialist states will be deported.  It’s more difficult to address the matter of local Soviet citizens.  Among them are quite a few good people.  But among these local Soviet citizens there are dispersed columns of openly and secretly hostile elements, who have conducted in the past or carry on now espionage activities against the USSR and the Chinese People’s Republic.  Here the question of the deportation of Soviet citizens requires careful study and the agreement of the Soviet embassy or the consulates of the USSR for each case.  At the Manchurian [train] stations the Chinese government has been forced already to conduct this sort of purge (“cleansing”).  These stations are important exchange points between the USSR and China.  In several cases the presence of unreliable elements at the stations resulted in Soviet shipments of arms to China ending up in the hands of American intelligence, and used for anti-Soviet propaganda in the press.  The Minister added that the local Chinese authorities already have passed on to the Soviet consulate a list of local Soviet citizens at Manchurian stations whom they are intending to arrest and deport.

I noted that I was aware of this list, and that after the study of material about those to be deported the Soviet consulate would communicate their comments.

Later I asked Luo Ruiqing to discuss the problems currently before the organs of State Security in the PRC in 1952.

Luo Ruiqing answered that in 1952 the Chinese government will continue its campaign to liquidate counterrevolutionaries.  In 1951 a serious blow has been delivered to the counterrevolutionaries.  However, counterrevolution has still not generally been liquidated.  In several regions a battle is still taking place against bandits, feudal elements, kulaks (miroedov), the underground Guomindang, spies, and diversionaries.

Luo Ruiqing discussed the fact that in connection with the serious assault on counterrevolution, the Americans and the Guomindang are changing the form of their work in China.

First, they are making various landings along the coast line, and also disperse their agents from planes.  The goal of these measures is to create support bases and unite around these bases the counterrevolutionary elements in the country.  Only within the last two months the Americans have some 50 agents in parachutes, equipped with arms, explosives, money, and means of communication and false documents.  All of these 50 agents were liquidated by the Chinese security organs.

Second, they are sending their agents to educational institutions, the army, the party apparatus, and administrative and financial organs, with the goal of undermining these organs from within.  In connection with this the Chinese organs of state security in 1952 are paying special attention to the appearance of espionage and diversionary elements within educational institutions, the army, the party, and the government.

Third, they are attempting to accomplish terrorist acts against members of the government, members of the democratic parties, Soviet workers in China and with the goal of provocation in international relations—even against citizens of capitalist states.

Luo Ruiqing added that in 1952 the organs of state security of China are especially interested in foreign residents in China, with the aim of gradually deporting most of them beyond the borders of the PRC, and the rest will be transported to distant regions and agricultural areas.

USSR AMBASSDOR IN THE PRC:

N.V. ROSHCHIN

3 copies.

1--Cde. Gromyko, A.A.

2—1 DVO MID SSSR

3—to be filed

18 January 1952