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Digital Archive International History Declassified

September 25, 1972

RECORD OF THE FIRST MEETING BETWEEN PRIME MINISTER TANAKA AND PREMIER ZHOU ENLAI

This document was made possible with support from the MacArthur Foundation

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    Tanaka Kakuei and Zhou Enlai had a conversation over the reasons for delay in diplomatic normalization, including the Japan-Taiwan relationship and the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty.
    "Record of the First Meeting between Prime Minister Tanaka and Premier Zhou Enlai," September 25, 1972, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, 2001-42, Act on Access to Information Held by Administrative Organs. Also available at the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Obtained by Yutaka Kanda and translated by Ryo C. Kato. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/118837
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Top Secret Indefinite

Prime Minister Tanaka [Kakuei]-Premier Zhou Enlai

(1972 September 25th ~ 28th)

- Japan-China Diplomatic Normalization Negotiations Record -

Asia Bureau, China Section

[…]

In Attendance

Japan

Prime Minister Tanaka

Minister of Foreign Affairs Ohira [Masayoshi]

Chief Cabinet Secretary Nikaido [Susumu]

China Section Chief Hashimoto [Hiroshi]

China

Premier Zhou Enlai

Minister of Foreign Affairs Ji Pengei

Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Liao Chengzhi

Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Han Nianlong

(Note: The following record was typed in September 1988 from the original normalization negotiation records)

First Summit Meeting (September 25th)

Prime Minister Tanaka: The time for Japan-China diplomatic normalization is ripe. I truly hope for this current visit to be successful, and that we will realize diplomatic normalization.

The reason for delay in diplomatic normalization is due to our relationship with Taiwan.

Although relations (Japan-Taiwan relations) will automatically be expunged due to normalization between Japan and China, we will still need to cope with the reality of some other problems. If we do not handle this correctly, there will be some disruptions domestically. When we realize normalization between Japan and China, we must give due consideration to the effect on Taiwan.

We want to begin the normalization process, first, with a joint statement. We want to seek the approval of the Diet later.

Foreign Minister Ohira: I want to accomplish the process of diplomatic normalization, and have that be the first step in a long friendship.

I also hope for normalization to contribute to the stability of our nation’s domestic politics. There are two problems in this regard.

First, we understand that China views the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty as illegal and invalid. However, this treaty has been ratified by the Japanese Government through a Diet resolution. If the Japanese Government were to agree with the Chinese Government, the Government would be tarred for having deceived the Japanese people and Diet over twenty years. Therefore, we seek from China the understanding that upon diplomatic normalization between Japan and China, the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty will end its function.

The second point is with regard to third-party countries. In particular, the Japan-US relationship is crucial to the existence of Japan. Additionally, the United States has many relations across the world. We believe that we must take caution as to not negatively influence the United States relations through Japan’s policies. That is to say, we want to realize diplomatic normalization between Japan and China without harming our relations with the United States.

With regard to Japan-Taiwan relations following normalization between Japan and China, we want to realistically hammer out what will be done and what will not be done once diplomatic relations between Japan and Taiwan have been terminated.

Premier Zhou: As Prime Minister Tanaka has said, I want to accomplish diplomatic normalization in one stroke. On the foundation of diplomatic normalization, Japan and China ought to have peaceful and friendly relations that will last for generations upon generations. Not only is diplomatic normalization between Japan and China beneficial for the peoples of both nations, it will also contribute to relaxing tensions in Asia and to peace in the world at large. At the same time, improvements in Japan-China relations cannot be exclusive.

Both Prime Minister Tanaka and Minister Ohira have said that they clearly understand the “Three Principles” that we have submitted. This is a very friendly attitude indeed.

I agree with the suggestion that we produce a joint declaration following the current Japan-China summit meeting, and then determine the shape of the treaty. I would like to conclude a treaty of peace and friendship after diplomatic relations are established. I want to include in the treaty items based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, including long-term peace and friendship, mutual non-aggression, and mutual loyalty.

I want for the conduct of friendship between Japan and China to not be exclusive.

I understand that the issue of cessation to hostilities is problematic for Japan, however, we cannot wholly agree with Mr. Ohira’s proposal. If it is to be understood that a state of war had ceased to exist after the Treaty of San Francisco, that would mean that China was not included, despite being a party to the issue.

I want to entrust this issue to the two foreign ministers and have them find a solution that both sides can agree.

I want for the solution to reflect the spirit of the “Three Principles,” but I want to entrust this to the two foreign ministers, as well.

Japan and China should meet on the important issues and eschew the small issues. I want to include the important commonalities in our communiqué.

We will not touch on Japan-US relations. This is an issue for Japan. The circumstances on the Taiwan Straits are changing, and so too the effect of the treaties (Japan-US Security Treaty; Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of China) are changing.

Japan, the US, and China shares a common interest in not permitting Soviet intervention in the Taiwan issue. As for China, we want to proceed today without touching on the Japan-US Security Treaty or the Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of China. We entrust all issues concerning Japan-US relations to you. China does not intervene in others’ domestic issues.

[…]

JAPANESE (TRANSCRIPTION) HTML

極秘無期限

田中総理・周恩来総理会談記

(1972年9月25日~28日)

-日中国交正常化交渉記録

アジア局中

[...]

双方の出席

日本側  田 中 総理大

外務大臣

二階堂 官房長官

橋 本 中国課

国側  周恩来 総理大

姫鵬飛 外交部長

廖承志 外交部顧問

韓念龍 外交部副部長

(注: 本会談記録は国交正常化当時の記録を改めて昭和63年9月タイプしたものである。

第一回首脳会談(9月25日

田中総理: 日中国交正常化の機が熟した。今回の訪中を是非とも成功させ、国交正常化を実現したい

 これまで国交正常化を阻んできたのは台湾との関係である

 日中国交正常化の結果、自動的に消滅する関係(日台外交関係)とは別に、現実に起こる問題に対処しなければならぬ。これをうまく処理しないと、国内にゴタゴタが起こる。日中国交正常化を実現するときには、台湾に対する影響を十分考えてやるべきだ

 国交正常化は、まず共同声明でスタートし、国会の議決を要する問題はあとまわしにしたい

大平大臣: 国交正常化をなしとげ、これをもって、日中両国の今後長きにわたる友好の第一歩としたい

 また国交正常化が、わが国の内政の安定に寄与するよう願っている。この観点から二つの問題がある。

 ひとつは日華平和条約の問題であり、中国側がこの条約を不法にして無効であるとの立場をとっていることも十分理解できる。しかし、この条約は国会の議決を得て政府が批准したものであり、日本政府が中国側の見解に同意した場合、日本政府は過去20年にわたって、国民と国会をだまし続けたという汚名をうけねばならない。そこで、日華平和条約は国交正常化の瞬間において、その任務を終了したということで、中国側の御理解を得たい

 第二点は第三国との関係である。とくに日米関係は日本の存立にとり極めて重大である。また、米国が世界に多くの関係をもっているが、日本の政策によって、米国の政策に悪影響が及ぶことがないよう注意しなければならないと考える。つまり、日中国交正常化をわが国としては対米関係を損ねないようにして実現したい

 日中国交正常化後の日台関係については、日台の外交関係が切れた後の現実的な関係を、やることと、やらないこととのケジメをはっきりさせて処理したい

総理: 田中総理の言うとおり、国交正常化は一気呵成にやりたい。国交正常化の基礎の上に、日中両国は世々代々、友好・平和関係をもつべきである。日中国交回復は両国民の利益であるばかりか、アジアの緊張緩和、世界平和に寄与するものである。また、日中関係改善は排他的なものであってはならない

 田中・大平両首脳は、中国側の提示した「三原則」を十分理解できると言った。これは友好的な態度である

 今回の日中首脳会談の後、共同声明で国交正常化を行い、条約の形をとらぬという方式に賛成する。平和友好条約は国交樹立の後に締結したい。これには、平和五原則に基づく長期の平和友好関係、相互不可侵、相互の信義を尊重する項目を入れたい

 日中友好は排他的でないようにやりたい。

 戦争状態終結の問題は日本にとって面倒だとは思うが、大平大臣の提案に、完全に同意することはできない。桑港条約以後今日まで戦争状態がないということになると、中国は当事者であるにもかかわらず、その中に含まれていない

 私は、この問題を二人の外相に任せ、日中双方の同意できる方式を発見したいと思う

 「三原則」についても、この精神を反映させたいが、方式は二人の外相に任せたい。

 日中は大同を求め小異を克服すべきであり、共通点をコミュニケにもりたい。

 日米関係にはふれない。これは日本の問題である。台湾海峡の事態は変ってきているから、条約(日米安保、米華相互防衛条約)そのものの効果も変ってきている

 台湾問題にソ連の介入を許さないという点で、日米中三国の共通点がある。中国側としては、今日は日米安保条約にも米華相互防衛条約にも、ふれずにゆきたい。日米関係については皆様方にお任せする。中国は内政干渉はしない

[…]

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