Search in
ADD SEARCH FILTER CANCEL SEARCH FILTER

Digital Archive International History Declassified

December 27, 1960

JOURNAL OF SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK A.M. PUZANOV FOR 27 DECEMBER 1960

This document was made possible with support from the ROK Ministry of Unification

CITATION SHARE DOWNLOAD
  • Citation

    get citation

    Pak Yong-guk provides information on the work of the December KWP CC Plenum for all the ambassadors of the socialist countries. What have mainly mentioned in Plenum were great changes in the field of agriculture in 1960 led by Kim Il Sung and KWP CC Presidium members, the tasks in the field of agriculture for 1961.
    "Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 27 December 1960," December 27, 1960, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVPRF fond 0102, opis 16, delo 7, p.172-200. Translated by Gary Goldberg. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/119498
  • share document

    https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/119498

VIEW DOCUMENT IN

English HTML

[faded USSR TOP SECRET

MFA stamp:   Copy Nº 1

SOVIET EMBASSY

IN THE DPRK

0198s

21 January 1961

31 December 1960

Nº 193

JOURNAL

of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK Cde. A. M. PUZANOV

from 19 November through 28 December 1960

[…]

27 December 1960

Cde. Pak Yong-guk provided the following information about the work of the December KWP CC Plenum for all the ambassadors of the socialist countries.

The Plenum was held on four days from 20 through 23 December. Three issues were considered at the Plenum:

1. The results of work in the field of agriculture in 1960 and the tasks for 1961.

2. The plan for the development of the economy for 1961.

3. The work of the Conference of Representatives of Communist and Worker's Parties.

The complete text of the resolution concerning the third issue has been published in the press; therefore there is no need to take time about this issue.

The Plenum noted that in the current year great changes have occurred in the field of agriculture. The KWP CC concentrated the main energies on work in the field of agriculture.

In February of this year Cde. Kim Il Sung visited the village of Chengsanri, where he personally supervised the work of the agriculture committee. In the course of this work he dealt with some important issues in the field of agriculture and raised some pressing tasks. He pointed out the basic direction of the work of Party organizations and people's committees in accordance with the new situation in the countryside. Cde. Kim Il Sung dealt with the issues of bringing the leadership close to the masses and pursuing political work above another work in particular, and also pointed to the need to increase the level of planning. He ordered that the main energies in agricultural cooperatives be concentrated on field work, strictly observing the principle of socialist distribution and that the bonus system be regulated.

The KWP CC adopted a course of strengthening Party leadership in the countryside on the basis of the order of Cde. Kim Il Sung. KWP CC Presidium members went to all the provinces to lead on the spot, and management groups consisting of senior officials of state institutions and Party organizations were sent to all agricultural cooperatives.

On the one hand, the KWP CC has been pursuing a policy of strengthening Party work in the field of agriculture, but on the other, of increasing materiel assistance. Great attention has been paid to increasing the level of work at the local level. Great changes have been achieves as a result in improving the style of work of local bodies and a general increase of the level of work in the field of agriculture.

One can cite such facts as the end of spring field work a month earlier than usual in spite of a considerable expansion of planting work, the introduction into fields of a considerably larger amount of local fertilizer, and the end of the transplanting of rice seedlings seven days earlier than usual  as examples of these changes. Great changes have occurred in the field of the alignment of forces in the countryside. This year labor force in agricultural cooperatives increased by a total of 87,000. Thirteen thousand managers were directly drawn into direct work in agricultural cooperatives. Whereas last year 11% of the workers in agricultural cooperatives were engaged in non-productive labor, this year only four percent were engaged in non-productive labor. Throughout the country 80-90% of all agricultural workers were directly engages in field work. On average each cooperative member worked 301 labor days last year, and 345 labor-days this year. In 1960 arable land increased by 106,000 jeongbo compared to last year and plots planted with grain by 653,000 jeongbo. This year the utilization factor of arable land was 174% against 150% last year.

Great changes have also occurred in the field of the mechanization of agriculture. This year 4,450 tractors were sent to the countryside. A total of 12,50[6] tractors are operating in the fields, against 8,050 tractors last year. Three hundred and eighty-five trucks have been sent to the countryside and they total 1,867 against 582 last year. The amount of work done by agricultural machine stations has increased by 2.2 times compared to last year. In the field of mechanization the KWP CC has devoted primary attention to two provinces, South Pyongan and South Hwanghae; as a result all the plowing and load transportation work in these provinces was mechanized.

Three thousand agricultural specialists who had previously worked in national institutions were sent for work in agricultural cooperatives. The management of agricultural cooperatives was somewhat improved. Whereas last year officials of various people's and Party committees rarely visited the masses and mainly engaged in holding meetings, this year they have even begun to visit the grass roots. Thus, red tape was almost completely eliminated. Officials of district Party and people's committees spent an average of 15-20 days a month in agricultural cooperatives, participating in drawing up agricultural work plans together with officials of agricultural cooperatives, and promoted an increase of the general level of the members of agricultural cooperatives by holding conversations, organizing courses, and with their personal work. Whereas previously managers sat in their offices, this year the majority of them personally participated in field work. Thus, they have learned agriculture better and have learned to realize specific leadership.

The observation of the socialist principle of distribution has improved considerably. Types of work were established by categories, as a result of which the difference in the assessment of heavy and light work was sharply defined. Groups to assess labor-days were formed and bonuses were given by work teams.

This year an unprecedented rich harvest was gathered - 3,803,000 tons of grain. The rice yield per jeongbo was an average of 3,509 kg per jeongbo, that is, an increase of 11% against last year. The corn harvest was 1,400 kg per jeongbo, that is, it rose 17% compared to last year.

On the whole throughout the country 2,100 kg of grain and 300 won of currency were distributed to each peasant household. The most was distributed to households in the province of South Pyongan, an average of 2,500 kg of grain. Then next in the distribution of grain came the provinces of North Pyongan, and South and North Hwanghae, where 2,300 kg of grain were distributed per household. The most currency was distributed in agricultural cooperatives of the city of Pyongyang. Each household was given 540 won. Among districts the greatest distribution was in the district of Mundeok of the Province of South Pyongan. There 3,400 kg of grain were issued to each household. An average of 3,300 kg was issued per household in the district of Seokchon [sic]. This year among mountainous regions the highest district in the distribution was the district of Changseong of the province of North Pyongan, where the main energies were mainly concentrated on livestock and subsidiary farming. Since work was conducted in this district in accordance with instructions of Cde. Kim Il Sung 2,000 kg of grain and 1,000 won of currency were issued to each household. Thus, we see that one can live no worse in mountainous terrain than in flat country if one works well.

He then cited examples of the greatest achievements in individual cooperatives. In the village of Cheogsanri an average of 3,206 kg of grain were issues per household, that is, double that of last year, when 1,286 kg of grain was distributed per household. The most money issued in this cooperative was 436 won, that is, 2.5 times more than last year when 172 won were issued [to each household].

In the cooperative of Yol'tu Samcheonli [sic] of the district of Seokchon [sic] 5,066 kg of grain were issued to a household (last year it was 2,335 kg). Cde. Kim Il Sung visited the cooperative of Namjeon [sic] of the district of Byeokdong [sic] in the province of North Pyongan this year. Here 3,017 kg of grain and 1,387 won were distributed to each household. All these examples clearly demonstrate the great changes which have occurred in the countryside this year.

The KWP CC has submitted new tasks in the field of agriculture for 1961 on the basis of total results. It was found to be necessary to completely carry out the instructions of Cde. Kim Il Sung next year which he made in the village of Cheogsanri.
 

It is planned to ensure a gross grain harvest of 4,160 tons in the economic development plan for 1961. But, considering the achievements of this year the CC Plenum assigned the task of getting a gross harvest of a million tons more than this year in 1961. In accordance with this decision at the present time the entire Party and people are preparing to accomplish the assigned task. The Plenum recognized that we have an opportunity to collect one million tons more next year than in the current year if the instructions of Cde. Kim Il Sung are carried out consistently.

Members of agricultural cooperatives accumulated great experience in the course of the agricultural work of the current year. As a result of the rich harvest a large quantity of grain and money was distributed, which improved the lives of the peasants and increased their enthusiasm. Decisions were made to expand the irrigated rice paddies by 21,000 jeongbo and to irrigate 5,400 of waterless fields anew. In 1961 the rate of mechanization of agriculture will be sped up. Three thousand large and 5,000 small tractors, 500 trucks, and up to 31,000 agricultural machines with trailers will be sent to the countryside. Next year the Party intends to send up to 600,000 tons of chemical fertilizer to the countryside, two times that in 1960. An average of 400 kilograms of mineral fertilizer will be applied to rice paddies and 300 kg to waterless fields per jeongbo. The amount of local fertilizer will be considerably increased. Arable land will be expanded by over 50,000 jeongbo, including an increase of 16,000 jeongbo of rice paddies and 25,000 jeongbo for corn.

Then Cde. Pak Yong-guk switched to the plan for the development of the DPRK economy for 1961. He said, beginning next year we will start to fulfill a seven-year plan. As Cde. Kim Il Sung indicated in his report at the solemn meeting devoted to the 15th anniversary of Liberation in the first three years of the seven-year plan primary attention will be devoted to increasing the material level of the lives of the population, and the next four years to the further development of heavy industry. At the present time we are preparing for a sharp upturn in the level of the people's lives in accordance with the main direction of the seven-year plan.

[The following] will be produced in 1961 by the main types of industrial production:

1961 plan

expected in 1960

Electrical power

7.9 billion kWh

7.181 kWh

Coal

11,929,000 tons

10,516,000 tons

Cast iron

960,000 tons

844,000 tons

Steel

790,000 tons

636,000 tons

Cement

2,379,000 tons

2,252,000 tons

Fabric, all kinds

185,000,000 meters

181,200,000 meters

Seafood

650,000 tons (plan)

700,000 tons

In 1961 the gross volume of industrial output will rise by 16% compared to 1960, including the production of consumer goods, by 25.3%. The economic development plan for 1961 provides for the concentration of the main efforts on the production of consumer goods. Capital investment will be mainly concentrated on the development of agriculture, the fishing industry, the creation of a light industry raw material base and in the mining industry. Next year the development of heavy industry will be subordinated to the tasks of increasing the level of the people's lives. The Party intends to concentrate main energies on the following issues:

First, on the mechanization and chemization of agriculture. According to the plan for 1961 8,000 tractors, 500 trucks, 31,000 trailed implements, and a large quantity of fertilizer and pesticides will be sent to the countryside. The machinebuilding industry will be mainly occupied with the production of agricultural output.

Second, great efforts will be concentrated on the creation and expansion of a base of light industry. Next year the construction of textile mills and the enterprises supplying these mills will be sped up. Great attention will be devoted to the production of food and consumer goods. As a result the mechanization and improvement of the operation of local industrial enterprises will have great importance. When this is being done great attention will be paid to the improvement of the quality in connection with an increase of requests from the population. Based on the fact that cotton yields poor harvests in the DPRK the main role in the production of fabric will be paid by synthetic fiber enterprises. A vinylon production plant with an [available] capacity of [16],000 tons occupies an important place among them. It will produce [16],000 tons of vinylon after the first phase of the plant is delivered by 1 May 1961. The plant is planned to be completely built by the end of 1961. The textile mill in the city of Chongjin will be expanded, and after this it will produce [16],000 tons of synthetic fiber annually. The construction of a textile works in the city of Sinuiju will be sped up, whose available capacity will reach [1]6,000 tons of synthetic fiber from cellulose. After the end of construction, planned for 1962, the works will provide 45,000,000 meters of fabric. A dyeing and finishing mill will be built in the same location. The construction of a plant in the city Hamhung to produce vinyl chloride was recently finished; it will produce 4,500 tons of vinyl chloride in 1961 and subsequently 6,000 tons annually. Further production of vinyl chloride will depend on the production of electrical power.

Third, next year great efforts will be directed at the development of fishing inasmuch as livestock breeding is poorly developed in the DPRK, and in conditions of direct proximity to the sea the supply of the population with fresh fish has great importance. According to the plan for 1961 it is planned to bring the fish catch to 700,000 tons, including other seafood. The main thing in the matter of developing the fishing industry is the construction of ships with large displacements, the organization of fishing expeditions, and also the mechanization of the catch. The construction of ships with a displacement of 3,000 tons and also those of medium tonnage, from 200 to 400 tons, is planned. The fishing catch plan can be fulfilled if the construction of ships with medium tonnage is ensured.

Such are the main directions through which the living [standards] of the people will be increased next year. Besides the above tasks for the next year it is planned to speed up the development of the mining industry and expand the movement for technical innovation and savings.

In conclusion Pak Yong-guk again stressed that according to the 1961 economic development plan a sharp upturn is provided in the material level of the lives of the population.

After the end of the information those present asked a series of questions.

I asked whether potatoes were included in the aforementioned gross grain harvest of 3,803,000 tons.

Pak Yong-guk replied that potatoes and root crops were included in the quantity of the grain harvest gathered in accordance with age-old traditions of Korean agriculture on the basis of 4 kg being equal to one kg of grain.

Cde. Pak Yong-guk did not reply to the question how conceivable is it for grain to come to the state from all types of procurement and purchases from the current year's harvest, referring to a lack of the appropriate information.

In replying to the question, what quantity of grain it is planned to gather in 1961, Cde. Pak Yong-guk said that according to the plan the 1961 grain harvest should be 4,160,000 tons. The Plenum called for an increase of one million tons more than this year in the grain harvest in the next year.

He replied affirmatively to a question about the conclusion of construction of a vinyl chloride plant in four months, pointing out that testing of equipment was conducted for two months after the end of construction in October and that the plant was put into operation on 25 December.

In reply to the Bulgarian ambassador's question how one is to understand the published figure of the fish catch plan for 1961 is 800,000 tons, Cde. Pak Yong-guk replied that according to the plan the fish and seafood catch should be 700,000 tons, but 800,000 tons is the labor commitments.

Responding to a request of the ambassador of Czechoslovakia Cde. Pak Yong-guk reported that only one ship with a displacement of 8,000 tons is being built at DPRK shipyards, but the number of ships of such tonnage which are to be built in 1961 has not yet been determined; mainly, predominantly wooden ships with a displacement of 200-400 tons displacement will be built.

In reply to a question from the Hungarian ambassador, how animal husbandry is developing this year specifically and how much meat was produced per capita, Cde. Pak Yong-guk replied that animal husbandry in the DPRK is poorly developed. He said that it was planned to produce 140,000 tons of meat in 1961. The Plenum had set a task for each peasant household to raise two pigs and [2]0 rabbits for this purpose. Pak Yong-guk said that the difficulties in the development of animal husbandry depend on shortages of fodder. Grains are being produced in insufficient quantity, and therefore they cannot be used as forage. It is planned to perform reseedings in rice paddies next year to increase the production of fodder. Due to the shortages in the supply of meat to the population, said Cde. Pak Yong-guk, we intend to increase the production of edible oils, chiefly from corn germ.

Responding to a request of the Czechoslovak ambassador, in what condition is the preparation of the seven-year plan and when will it be published, Cde. Pak Yong-guk said that some figures of the seven-year plan were indicated in Cde. Kim Il Sung's 14 August 1960 report. The plan as a whole will be published in the second half of next year after discussion at a Party congress.

Embassy Third Secretary D. A. Priyemsky was present at the briefing.

x x x

Hungarian Ambassador Prath Karoly gave a dinner at which all ambassadors, their spouses, and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Ju Jeon-sik [sic] attended.

[…]

SOVIET AMBASSADOR IN THE DPRK [signature] (A. Puzanov)

Five copies sent

1 - Cde. A. A. Gromyko

2 - Cde. Yu. V. Andropov

3 - Cde. V. I. Tugarinov

4 - UVPI MID SSSR [Translator's note: While the last two abbreviations expand to "USSR MFA" the only known expansion of the first abbreviation is "Directorate for POWs and Internees Affairs"]

5 - to file

Nº 543, re

30 December 1960