Search in

Digital Archive International History Declassified



  • Citation

    get citation

    The Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang issues a twelve point list of demands for political and social change.
    "Appeal to the Peoples of Xinjiang," 1948, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, RGASPI F. 17, Op. 162, D. 39, ll. 43-46. Obtained by Jamil Hasanli and translated by Gary Goldberg.
  • share document


English HTML

[handwritten:] pages 43-46 are in a classified repository



and point 84 of Politburo Minutes Nº 63

Top Secret


We, a group of progressive people, democratic intellectuals, spiritual leaders, leaders of cultural and educational societies, and the "Youth League", have met in the city of Ghulja [Yining] in order to discuss the primary needs of the population of Xinjiang province.

After an exchange of opinions, we have come to the conclusion that the main cause of all the difficulties being experienced by the peoples of Xinjiang is the lack of unity and friendship among the population.

Animosity between individual ethnic groups, which is artificially fanned by enemies of the Xinjiang people in order to distract the population's attention from the struggle for their rights and to create such conditions in which it is easier to keep the working population in submission, divides the people of Xinjiang.

Yang Cengxin, Jin Shureng, Sheng Shicai, and Wu Zhongxin, who were in power in Xinjiang for many years, created intolerable living conditions. People's representatives were not allowed in government bodies and the best progressive leaders and local authorities who were loyal to the people's cause were imprisoned. The enemies of the people fanned animosity between the ethnic groups which inhabit Xinjiang, engaged in violence, and ruled the people with the aid of deception and lies in order to ensure the unquestioning obedience of the population. The people were deprived of the most common rights, freedom of speech, press, assembly, and organization.

Scoundrels profited from the people's misfortune. They sent the people into slavery, but working people shed the blood of their sons for them, performed the most difficult work, paid intolerable taxes, and enjoyed no rights.

Those who had power wanted the people to do field work, be illiterate, uneducated, and ignorant.

That's how it was earlier. In 1944 the cup of the people's patience overflowed. The uprising of the entire people against the ferocious oppression of the local rulers and oppressors which broke out ended in 1946 with the conclusion of a peace agreement between representatives of the people who had risen to fight for their rights and the representatives of the central government of the Republic of China.

This agreement officially recognizes for the peoples of Xinjiang all those democratic freedoms which they won in their struggle.

However the government still has some elements hostile to the people which want to again take away from the population the freedoms won and recognized by the government of the Republic of China. This is attested by the predatory raids, the atrocities against the civilian population, the murder of women and children, and the violence and lawlessness which has been and continues to be committed with the support of the people who hold power, the steppe wolf Ospan [Batyr] [Osman Batur], and his predatory gang.

The population of Xinjiang cannot forget the betrayal of the cause by Kalibek, who is a comrade-in-arms of Ospan and thus a brigand like Ospan himself. To this day the children, women, and mothers mourn their fathers, husbands, and sons whom the same Ospan and Kalibek, acting as one with some people in power, drew into a bloody adventure.

We genuinely believe that peace and friendship between the peoples of Xinjiang, justice and real freedom will be established if the Uygurs and Kazakhs, Kirgiz and Mongols, Chinese and Dungans, Uzbeks and other peoples who inhabit our territory join together to finally put an end to lawlessness, the denial of rights, slavery, poverty, and ignorance. We will build a life on our native land in the interests of peoples who engage in useful work and in this life there will be no place for animosity between different ethnic groups or the belittling of small ethnic groups.

We have created the "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang" for this purpose.

The "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang" sets as its mission the combining of the efforts of progressive people who are striving to establish freedom and peace between the peoples of Xinjiang, the observance of the 6 June 1945 agreement, and the organization of a rebuff to the adventurers who violate this agreement.

The Association will seek for the following main measures recognized by this agreement and which secure the legal rights of the people to be put into effect in Xinjiang:

1. Ensuring real freedom of speech, press, assembly, organization, and religious convictions.

2. Granting all the peoples of Xinjiang equal rights to occupy any post in all government bodies regardless of their ethnic group.

3. Putting into effect the principle of appointment by election to office of local citizens who enjoy the trust of the people.

4. Assisting government bodies and monitoring the activity of the administration, ensuring the necessary conditions for the existence and work of the advisory committees elected by the people from the most trusted people.

5. The organization of cultural and educational and other societies which will strive to improve the lives of the peoples in Xinjiang.

6. The granting to the peoples of Xinjiang of the right to publish newspapers, magazines, and other literature in [their] native languages.

7. An increase in the number of primary schools with free education for the poor in [their] native languages, the creation of trade schools which would train specialists for various sectors of the economy of Xinjiang province, and also the opening of special and higher educational institutions, theaters, movie houses, and radio [broadcasting].

8. Holding judicial proceedings in the native languages of the peoples of Xinjiang and the independence of the courts from executive government bodies.

9. Granting women and servicemen the same political rights as all citizens.

10. An increase in the number of clinics, hospitals, and other medical institutions, and also the organization of free medical aid to the poorest population.

11. A guarantee of the sanctity of the personal ownership of land, pastures, cattle, industrial enterprises, and also any other personal and real property for all ethnic groups who are indigenous residents of Xinjiang on an equal basis.

12. An improvement in the means of working the land, the development of cattle breeding, the irrigation system, and pastures.

The "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang" assumes a great and sacred responsibility to the people to solve these urgent problems while relying on the support of the people themselves and the fulfillment of their will.

The "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang" will also support the progressive and genuinely democratic measures of the government of the Republic of China in every way.

The "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang" will be a mass, popular organization, for it will fight for genuine popular interests, the establishment of genuine freedom, equality, friendship, and peace to the same extent as for an increase in the welfare and cultural life of the peoples who inhabit our native land.

Local organizations of the association will be created in the districts and villages of the entire province with the same tasks.

We invite everyone to the "Association for the Defense of Peace and Democracy in Xinjiang", regardless of gender, ethnicity, religious convictions, social position, or personal wealth, everyone who holds dear the interests of the people, the interests of the peasants, craftsmen, cattle breeders, intellectuals, officers and enlisted men, merchants and spiritual leaders, everyone who wants to achieve real human rights for our people, and everyone who wants a just peace based on genuine democratic principles.

The "Association" will include everyone who loves their native land, who wants to lead it out of backwardness and ignorance and from eternal poverty and unceasing bloody struggle.

The "Association" will include everyone who strives for fraternal unity, love, friendship, and for the equality of all ethnic groups. All of us are joined by an unselfish love for [our] native land and genuine freedom and no one will be able to block our victorious march on the path of progress and democracy.

Forward, to a just peace and progress.


Join the ranks of the Association.


Authenticated: [illegible signature]


It appears your Web browser is not configured to display PDF files. No worries, just click here to download the PDF file.

Click here to view the PDF file in a new window.

PDFs cannot be printed inline in the page. To print a PDF, you must first download the file and open it in a PDF viewer.