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Digital Archive International History Declassified



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    List of survey questions intended to help the International Labour Organization (ILO) determine possibilities for conversion of the workforce engaged in the defense industry as well as the broader implications of decreasing military expenditures.
    "Conversion of the Workforce Engaged in the Defense Industry and Related Areas," 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Vitalii Leonidovich Kataev Papers, Box 12-30, Hoover Institution Archives .
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List of questions on which it is necessary to obtain information

The goal of this survey is to present the possibility to the IOL of evaluating the scale of the problem related to the conversion of the workforce in connection with the decrease of expenditures on military needs. Affected by this are all workers engaged in the production of military equipment, reserves (not including stationary basic structures), military equipment and weapons (i.e. “goods”) that have not only military significance, but other products manufactured either by enterprises (state or private) under immediate contract with the Ministry of Defense or by those that work as subcontractors to a primary client. There is a distinction made between “military” goods, i.e. those that are used exclusively by the armed forces (the Ministry of Defense) and those goods, military or otherwise, that obtained by the Ministry of Defense. One might also consider here civilians working in administrative institutions of the Ministry of Defense and at military bases, at military research institutions, at shipyards, and other such units.

I. Expenditures for military purposes and creation of jobs

1. How many jobs are created in the entire economy by budget expenditures for military purposes?

2. Indicate the number of jobs created without including jobs for armed forces and auxiliary troops, broken into the following categories:

a. Civilians working at defense-related Ministries, indicate their professional structure.

b. The entire number of workers at enterprises producing and/or collecting exclusively military equipment.

c. The total number of workers engaged in the operation and repair of military equipment.

d. Workers at enterprises producing military and nonmilitary equipment, indicate the portion of the entire workforce at these enterprises engaged in the production of goods purchased by the Ministry of Defense.

e. Workers at enterprises producing non-military equipment for military uses, indicate the portion of the entire workforce of these enterprises engaged in the production of goods purchased by the Ministry of Defense.

f. Jobs created by the production of intermediary products used for the manufacture of finished military products.

II. Engagement and structure of the workforce in the military industry and associated services

1. Indicate the number of workers in thousands and in percentages of the entire workforce engaged in the following defense and related industries:

- aviation, airplane building, aviation motor building, missiles, etc.;

-electronics and communication;



-weapons and firearms;

-automotive transport, including armored plating of military vehicles;

-other areas of industry.

If possible, provide information from consecutive periods or even the most recent information. Any additional analysis of information on industry would be valued.

2. Provide all available information on the professional structure of the defense industry on the following professional groups and, if possible, by subgroups as well:

-Professional and technical workers;

-Scientists, engineers, and technicians;


-Military personnel;

-Service industry personnel;

-Workers engaged in manufacturing and related areas;


3. Are there evaluations of the analysis by region (with data broken out into groups) connected with the defense industry and its level of activity? Is the industrial sector producing weapons more or less concentrated by region compared to other industrial sectors?

4. List the 20 largest companies producing weapons and provide the following information: sector of industry; owner; weapons production as a percentage of the overall volume of production; level of activity connected with military production as a percentage of overall activity; percentage of military products manufactured and level of activity connected with exports.

III. Personnel engaged in research connected with military industry.

1. What is the full size of expenditures on research and development of the defense industry? What portion of funding is for research and development in the defense industry as a percentage of all funding from the government for research and development in this area?

2. Are there evaluations of the overall number of scientists, engineers, and technicians working in the area of research and development of the defense industry? Are there data by industry sector, profession, specialization, or scientific discipline?

3. Are there areas of research and defense sector development that would be difficult to convert for civilian purposes? For example, would the research and development be fully separate from the civilian sector (concentrated in special institutes)? Are salaries higher for researchers working in the defense industry, than those working in the civilian sector?

IV. Conversion of the workforce from the military to civilian sector

1. Is research being conducted on issues related to the impact of reductions in defense industry expenditures on the level of activity, by sector, occupation, and region? Are you able to provide examples of the impact on the level of activity of military expenditures being used for civilian purposes?

2. What are the main conversion problems that might arise in the case of gradual disarmament?

3. What would be the role of the government in the case of gradual conversion? Would preliminary planning be necessary? Have such plans been made?

4. Are the examples of conversion of military into civilian industry that has been done in your country at a factory, sectoral or regional level (after the Second World War)?

5. Provide research, documents, legislation, and concrete measures related to problems and capabilities of conversion of military activity for civilian purposes.