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Digital Archive International History Declassified

May 09, 1961

4TH BUREAU OF THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC SECURITY, 'ILLEGAL BORDER CROSSINGS BY ETHNIC KOREANS HAVE BECOME SERIOUS RECENTLY'

This document was made possible with support from the Henry Luce Foundation

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    The 4th Bureau of China's Public Security Ministry records that there are growing waves of illegal border crossings among ethnic Koreans in the area of Andong, Liaoning Province.
    "4th Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security, 'Illegal Border Crossings by Ethnic Koreans Have Become Serious Recently'," May 09, 1961, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, PRC FMA 118-01026-04. Translated by David Cowhig. https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/188159
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Top Secret

Border Situation Telephone Call Log

May 8 at 22:10 – Call from unit Liaoning Provincial Public Security Bureau Police Corp. Caller Jin Kechang. Received by Liu Xiaopei

Illegal Border Crossings by Ethnic Koreans Have Become Serious Recently

The Andong [Dandong] City Public Security Bureau reports that in recent days, [ethnic] Korean [Chaozian zu] residents of Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and other localities have been fleeing across the border throughout the border region of ​​Jiulian City in Andong. The number of residents fleeing across the border area of ​​Andong has already begun to decline. They cross in groups, old and young, some sneaking across at night while during the day some brandish wooden poles and, ignoring the People’s Militia trying to dissuade them from crossing the border, flee across the border in a group.

May 5: 44 people (mostly ethnic Korean residents of Shenyang) fled cross the border in a group. After being educated, they immediately decided on their own to return.

May 7 at 11 AM: over 30 people (most of whom we had stopped earlier when they had tried to flee on May 5) brandishing holding wooden poles, threatened People’s Militia who came to dissuade them and said, "If you get any closer, we will kill you.” They rushed across the border in a group.

May 8 at 2 AM: over 20 people ignored efforts of border guards to dissuade them, fled across the border in a group.

May 8 at 5 AM: over 120 people from Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and other places attempted to flee but the border guards dissuaded them. When the Anton City Public Security Bureau heard about it, they sent out an office director to dissuade them who was able to prevent 96 of the group from fleeing. However, 20 others in the group broke through and crossed the border.

On April 28, the Liaoning Provincial Party Committee issued instructions to all localities to strengthen educational and living arrangements for Korean national minority residents. Yesterday at 8 AM, the Provincial Public Security Department instructed the Andong City Bureau to send cadres to the Jiulianchang area to strengthen their work there and send people to key border posts (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi) to dissuade those who are planning to flee across the international border so that they do not approach the border.

4th Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security

May 9, 1961

Distribution: Minister Xie, Xu, Yang, Wang, Liang, Li, Deputy Minister Wang, General Office, General Office, First Bureau, Premier’s Office, Foreign Affairs Office of the State Council, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ethnic Affairs Commission, General Staff Department, General Political Department.

A total of 17 copies were printed. Drafted: Liu Fengming Proofreader: Liu Xiaopei