Mao Zedong discusses the significance of the signing of the Sino-North Korean Economic and Cultural Cooperation Agreement at a banquet for a North Korean government delegation. Dismissing that China's aid to North Korea is one-sided, Mao notes that North Korea "helped" China by being in the front line of the struggle against imperialism. North Korea protected China by preventing the imperialists from crossing the Yale River.
November 23, 1953
Agreement on Korean Technical Personnel Receiving Training in China and Chinese Technical Personnel Working in Korea Made by the Governments of the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
This document was made possible with support from Leon Levy Foundation
In order to strengthen the friendship between the two countries and cooperate on further developing production technologies, the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of Korea and the Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of China have reached an agreement on the following:
Article 1: The Central Government of the People’s Republic of China will accept [North] Korean mechanics and technicians for internships on production techniques in appropriate Chinese production units. The Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea will invite and employ Chinese mechanics and technicians to participate in [North] Korea’s economic reconstruction and to help develop [North Korean] technical personnel.
Article 2: Prior to December of each year, the North Korean Government and the Chinese Government will agree on the number of, coursework, and term limit for [North] Korean technical personnel and the number, scope of work, and term limit for Chinese technical personnel for the following year. The relevant departments from both sides will respectively agree to a contract on the detailed requirements for the internships of [North] Korean technical personnel and the work of Chinese technical personnel. Internship contracts must be entered into four months prior to the start of the internship. Work contracts must be entered into four months prior to the start of work.
Article 3: In order for the internships and work to proceed smoothly, each respective party will be responsible for reviewing the political and health conditions of the [North] Korean technical personnel and the Chinese technical personnel.
Article 4: The departments in which [North] Korean technical personnel have internships in will be decided by the Chinese government. The departments in which Chinese technical personnel work in will be decided by the [North] Korean government.
Article 5: The [North] Korean technical personnel interning in China and the Chinese technical personnel working in [North] Korea should strictly abide by the host government’s laws and the regulations of the internship department or work department.
Article 6: While interning in China, the [North] Korean technical personnel shall receive the same treatment from their department as Chinese technical personnel and mechanics, including medical expenses and pay in Chinese currency. Their departments will also provide dormitories with furniture, lighting, and heating. The burden of other necessary expenses belongs to the interns themselves.
Article 7: While working in [North] Korea, the Chinese technical personnel shall receive from their work departments the same amount of wages as they did in China, including medical expenses, travel expenses, and allowances. Their work departments will also provide dormitories with furniture, lighting, and heating. The original wages that were in Chinese currency are to be paid according to the needs of the individuals and their families. Wages are to be paid by [North] Korea and China in their respective currencies. The specifics will be defined in the work contracts.
Article 8: Travel expenses for [North] Korean technical personnel and Chinese technical personnel from and to their respective countries are the responsibility of the host country. China will pay for the travel [of North Korean technical personnel] and [North] Korea will pay for the travel [of Chinese technical personnel]. The standards for travel allowances will be set according to each government’s current standards for technical personnel pay.
Article 9: The expenses for Chinese technical personnel described in Article 7 and the travel expenses for [North] Korean and Chinese technical personnel described in Article 8, particularly the expenses to be paid for by China, will be settled by the two governments of China and [North] Korea at the end of each year. At that time the Chinese government should provide [North] Korea with the promised assistance funds.
Article 10: Reports by [North] Korean technical personnel about their internship should be approved by the host [Chinese] units. Upon completion of internships, the respective units should issue internship certificates to identify the earned professional and technical proficiencies.
Article 12: The provisions of this agreement related to the internships of [North] Korean technical personnel in China are valid from 1 January 1954 and applies to all [North] Korean technical personnel that have already started their internship in China.
Article 13: Mutual agreement must be obtained for any necessary revisions to this agreement to be made.
Article 14: The agreement shall take effect from the day of signing
Concluded on 23 November 1953 in Beijing in duplicate Chinese and Korean versions. Both versions of the agreement are equally valid.
Representative of the Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China
The full-text of the Agreement on Korean Technical Personnel Receiving Training in China and Chinese Technical Personnel Working in Korea signed on 23 November 1953 by Zhou Enlai and Nam Il
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