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July 10, 1945

Cable, Summary of Averell Harriman Meeting with T. V. Soong

This document was made possible with support from Chun & Jane Chiu Family Foundation







This morning Soong showed me the detailed notes of his talk with Stalin and Molotov last night. Substantial progress was made. Agreement appears to have been reached over Outer Mongolia. After the war the Generalissimo agrees that China will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia, providing a plebiscite is held which favors independence. This agreement is not to be announced until after the war is over.


The above is subject to full agreement of all other questions including Soviet Union support of the National Government in unifying China.


Soong is satisfied with the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance in the form proposed by Stalin.


As to the boundaries between Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang [Xinjiang] there is a difference of opinion. This is to be left for a boundary commission to determine. Stalin, though he would not admit Soviet assistance to the insurgents in Sinkiang, agreed that it would be the Soviet Government's obligation not to support these rebel forces. Soong agreed to Stalin's suggestion that greater political recognition be given by the Chinese to the various Sinkiang racial groups.


While he would not admit giving moral and material support to the communists, Stalin categorically stated he would support only the National Government in China and that all the military forces of China must come under the control of the Government. Soong outlined the conditions the National Government was ready to grant the communists and Stalin made no adverse comment. Soong is inclined to believe that if an agreement is reached with the Soviet Union it will open the way for an understanding between the communist party and the National Government.


Chiang's counter proposals regarding the ports and railroads in Manchuria were advanced by Soong. In the discussion Stalin made only a few concessions from his previous demands. The term of agreements was reduced from 40 to 30 years. The rail roads involved should be only the main lines and not subsidiary lines. Title of the railroads might be joint Soviet and Chinese. The industries referred to in the Soviet proposal should be only the main lines and not subsidiary lines. Title of the railroads might be joint Soviet and Chinese. The industries referred to in the Soviet proposal should be only those directly connected with the operation of the railroads. Soong insisted that the railway guards should be Chinese, maintaining that the guards were soldiers and therefore if Soviet this would, in fact, be the stationing of Soviet troops in Manchuria. Stalin insisted that protection of the railroad was essential and that he could not be satisfied with Chinese guards. Finally he said, "We might see after two years."


The question of whether Dairen [Dalian] will be included in the military zone is one of the principal differences in connection with the ports. Soong wants the military zone to be limited to Port Arthur [Lüshunkou District, Dalian], whereas the Russians are claiming the entire Kwantung Peninsula. Under such circumstances the port of Dairen would not be a genuinely free port as it would be dominated by the Russians.


The open questions were left for discussion between Soong and Molotov at a conference which is taking place this afternoon, July 10.






Harriman reports that Soong and Stalin have come to an agreement over the issue of Outer Mongolia, and that China will recognize Outer Mongolia's independence in light of Stalin's proposed Treaty of Alliance between the two nations. Border disputes over Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang remain, as well as the issue of a joint Sino-Soviet railway and the administration of Port Arthur and Dairen.

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W. A. Harriman Papers, Library of Congress.

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