Gong Pusheng outlines the competitions between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China for representation in different international political bodies.
September 16, 1959
G. Zhukov to the CPSU CC
This document was made possible with support from Chun & Jane Chiu Family Foundation
[CPSU CC stamp:
18 SEPTEMBER 1959]
to the CPSU CC
At the end of this July a copy of a conversation between Cde. Krutikov, Counsellor of the Soviet Embassy in the PRC, and Cde. Gong Pusheng, Chief of the PRC MFA Department of International Relations, came to the State Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. In this conversation Cd. Gong Pusheng gave an explanation about the situation of “two Chinas” which the US and its agent network are trying to create against the PRC in various international organizations.
On 8 August of this year a special conference of representatives of interested Soviet organizations was held in the Committee in connection with the relevance of this problem. The PRC position on the “two Chinas” situation was explained to participants of the conference. In the course of an exchange of opinions the participants expressed desires to get instructions in writing about the substance of this question for practical use.
On 10 August we sent a memo to Cde. Liu Xiao, the PRC Ambassador in the USSR, in which it was reported that a conference had been held on this question and presented a desire to convey written materials about the “two Chinas” situation to Soviet organizations.
On 8 September Ambassador Liu Xiao passed us a memorandum on this question and a translation of it into Russian, saying that we can distribute it as we wish.
In this connection I would think it advisable to send out the Russian-language copy attached to the memorandum in the near future to all Soviet organizations which take part in international organizations or are sending their representatives to conferences or congresses as guidance about the “two Chinas” situation.
Request [your] agreement.
Attachment: the aforementioned on six pages.
16 September 1958
[handwritten at the bottom of the title page:
In accordance with an instruction of Cd. M. A. Suslov Cde.
Zhukov sent out the memorandum of Liu Xiao.
(see the attachment to this N 34180)]
[handwritten in the left margin:
Agreed. D. [illegible surname]]
I. In a situation of the further growth of the influence of the PRC in the international arena it has become increasingly difficult for the American imperialists to pursue their policy of a hostile attitude toward the Chinese people, non-recognition of the PRC, and the elimination of China from participating in international life; however, this policy of theirs is becoming increasingly unpopular. in order to escape such a difficult position and carry out its plan for the further occupation of PRC territory, Taiwan, they have further increased their conspiratorial activity directed at the creation of “two Chinas”. One of the means to which the US resorts to pursue its policy of the creation of “two Chinas” is to gradually create in collusion with its followers a situation of the simultaneous presence of representatives of the PRC and the Nationalist clique in some international organizations and at some international conferences. The PRC has pursued an unswerving struggle against this American plot. In the course of this struggle it has obtained powerful support from the camp of socialism headed by the Soviet Union. In a recently published memorandum “Policy with Respect to Non-Recognition of the Chinese Communist Regime” the US State Department could not fail to recognize those difficulties which it has encountered when carrying out its designs about the creation of “two Chinas”, and has attempted to conceal its actual ambitions. However, it has by no means abandoned this conspiracy. After the 19th session of the International Red Cross Conference in 1957 the US increased its activity to create a situation of “two Chinas” at international conferences, inciting the Nationalist clique to issue statements about joining the following international organizations in which the PRC was already represented: the International Table Tennis Federation, the International Volleyball Federation, the International Union of Bicyclists, the International Astronomical Union, the International Conference on Large Electrical Systems, etc. In addition, after the participation of PRC representatives at sessions of the World Energy Conference and the World Federation of United Nations Associations, the US began to incite the Nationalist clique to issue statements about joining these two organizations. Under US pressure the Nationalists issued statements about joining international organizations in which the PRC was represented in the name of “The Republic of China”. At the same time they might also act under such names as “the Taiwan government” and even “the Taiwan authorities”. In a word they are striving be on a par with the PRC. The difference in names is only a maneuver with the aid of which the American imperialists are trying to deceive intermediate countries, and actually as before the American imperialists cherish dark designs regarding tearing Taiwan away from China. In order to finally wreck these dark designs of the US the PRC is opposing any assertions and methods which have as their goal the creation or recognition of a situation of “two Chinas” in international organizations and at international conferences, and are also refusing to cooperate with any international organizations or conferences in which the Nationalists are a member or to which they are invited (regardless of under whatever name the Nationalist clique is represented). The PRC prefers not to take part in international organizations and at international conferences in order not to allow the realization of the conspiracy about the creation of “two Chinas”. This is the most basic principle and position on the basis of which the PRC constructs its relations with international organizations and conferences.
II. PRC policy with respect to various conspiracies about the creation of “two Chinas”.
1. The question of the participation of PRC organizations and the “organizations” of the Nationalist clique in one international organization or another and at one international conference or another. In these cases the PRC vigorously demands the expulsion of the Nationalists. If they do not achieve this, then the PRC decisively refuses to cooperate with this organization or conference and leaves the organization or quits the conference. During the year which has passed since the 19th session of the International Red Cross Conference the PRC has left the International Conference on Large Electrical Systems and the World Football Federation. We recently announced our non-recognition of the International Olympic Committee, ceased any relations with them, and left eight international athletic organizations: the International Swimming Federation; the International Track and Field Federation; the International Basketball Federation; the International Kettlebell Lifting and Physical Culture Federation; the International Shooting Union; the International Wrestling Federation; the International Union of Bicyclists; and the Asian Table Tennis Federation. In the future the PRC will not participate in any international organizations or conferences in which the Nationalists are members or to which they have been invited. If any international organizations or conferences at which the PRC is represented invite the Nationalists then this can only be considered a violation of sovereignty, interference in the internal affairs of China, and the realization of the dark designs of the creation of “two Chinas”. The PRC will decisively leave such international organizations and quit the conferences.
2. The question of the participation of PRC organizations or individual representatives and individuals of the Nationalist clique in one international organization or another or at one conference or another. Such a situation does not outwardly create a situation of “two Chinas” but in fact it leaves people with the impression of the simultaneous existence of “two Chinas” of which our enemies often make use. Therefore in the future the PRC will not take part in such organizations or conferences. As concerns such international organizations as the Society to Study International Law and others in which the PRC is already represented then it also intends to leave there at an appropriate time.
If some international organization and conference where the PRC is represented personally invite Chinese living abroad to take part in their work, then the political position of the people doing the inviting is mainly taken into account. If they are acting not in the name of the Nationalist clique, but only as members of delegations of other countries, then it cannot be viewed as a question of “two Chinas”. However, when this is done one ought to be vigilant with respect to their possibly being disguised with the goal of conducting conspiratorial activity.
3. The question of PRC representatives taking part in branches or in some sessions of those international organizations of which the Nationalist clique is a member, even on condition that Nationalists are absent in these branches or at such sessions. This would not only create a situation of “two Chinas”, but would give people an incorrect idea, as if the PRC were hastening to take part in these international organizations. Therefore the PRC refuses to take part in such international organizations and conferences.
III. The UN and its specialized institutions under US influence, as long as they grant access to the Nationalists and refuse to grant the PRC its legal place. Therefore the position and main policy of the PRC with respect to the UN and its specialized institutions comes down to the following:
1. The PRC does not sent its representatives, including its representatives to international organizations, to take part in any conferences of the UN system and its specialized institutions. PRC citizens also will not deal with or hold discussions with the UN and its specialized institutions as representatives or the officials of any international organizations.
2. The PRC does not furnish any materials to the UN and its specialized institutions, and hopes that the fraternal countries will not place corresponding materials concerning China in the printed media of the UN or of its specialized institutions.
3. The PRC position on the question of relations between those international organizations and conferences where the PRC is represented, on the one hand, and the UN and its specialized institutions, on the other, comes down to the following:
a) The PRC might support those resolutions adopted by those international organizations in which the UN Charter is mentioned in general. As regards the resolutions of these international organizations which concern the UN and its specialized institutions the PRC consequently does not take any obligations on itself. However, if these resolutions serve to strengthen world peace and friendly cooperation then the PRC will not oppose them;
b) Representatives of PRC organizations will not attend sessions at which issues of the UN or its specialized institutions are discussed especially;
c) The People’s Republic of China refuses to attend conferences at which UN representatives play the leading role or act as the main speakers or other special representatives, and refuse to listen to reports of UN representatives. If UN representatives attend conferences as ordinary representatives or give an ordinary speech at conferences, then representatives of PRC organizations will attend them. If UN representatives make slanderous attacks against the PRC at those conferences where the People’s Republic of China is represented then the Chinese representatives will immediately give them a rebuff and then leave the meeting room. If the Nationalists are present at the conferences as UN representatives then this will be considered as an intentional insult to the PRC. Consequently, representatives of PRC organizations will declare their protest and will in no event attend such conferences;
d) The question of the establishment of consultative ties between appropriate international organizations, on the one hand, and the UN or its specialized institutions, on the other. The PRC does not consider it advisable for itself to express its opinion on this question. If such questions are raised for voting, then the PRC will abstain.
IV. The PRC considers that participation in international organizations and at international conferences is one of the forms of maintaining relations and contacts in the international arena. Participation in these organizations and at these conferences might play a certain role in the sense of expanding the influence of the PRC and familiarization with the progress of matters in some field. However, the non-participation of the PRC can by no means restrict its rapid development and keep it from maintaining contacts and ties with the peoples of other countries. Partial participation or non-participation in some international organizations and at some international conferences does not mean that the PRC is taking a passive position with respect to cultural exchange between the peoples of various countries. The PRC can pursue such activity while resorting to other forms. On the contrary, the PRC’s non-participation in some international organizations and at some international conferences might cause difficulties in their activity, which would promote the growth of their dissatisfaction with the US, and lead to the dark designs of the creation of “two Chinas” being subjected to even greater condemnation and a blow. The PRC is ready to cooperate with those international organizations and conferences which do not infringe on the sovereignty of the PRC and bring it benefit.
With the powerful support of the fraternal countries headed by the Soviet Union the just struggle of the PRC against the dark designs of the US in the creation of “two Chinas” will certainly end in complete victory.
4 September 1958
[handwritten: authenticated [illegible name]
A PRC memorandum outlines supposed American plots to create “two Chinas."
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