March 22, 1974
Intelligence Information No 21 from Gen. V. Zikulov to T.Zhivkov on the Situation in Cyprus and Greece
Copy No. 2
HERE (TUK) – THE FIRST SECRETARY OF THE CC [CENTRAL COMMITTEE] OF THE BCP [BULGARIAN COMMUNIST PARTY]
AND CHAIRMAN OF THE STATE COUNCIL
COMRADE TODOR ZHIVKOV
On the situation in Cyprus and Greece
Recently, several new developments are observed in the situation in Cyprus and Greece.
In Cyprus they are characterized by the following:
- The National Guard of Cyprus, which is led by a Greek command squad, is reinforced with a new contingent of officers, sergeants and soldiers, who have arrived from Greece and are meant to occupy some important positions. This squad is expected to replace the tank-crews in the [National] guard;
- The arming of the illegal organization “EOKA-2” [EOKA-B] continues, which tells that it will not only not be disbanded, but is also preparing for more active steps (deistvia) against the government of Makarios.
- The former leader of the organization Karusos, who defended the position that the organization should fight the government with political means only, has been replaced with the Greek colonel from the reserve Dertilis, who served in the diversion-intelligence unit in Greece;
- The Greek government exerted pressure on Makarios and carried out a propaganda campaign for the reinstitution of holy rank (san) for the former bishops of Paphos, Kyrenia and Limassol, who have been removed from office, aimed at creating disunity among the Greek-Cypriot population on church-related matters;
- According to some reports (niakoi danni), the Greek and the Turkish governments, without consulting (bez da suglasuvat s) the government of Cyprus, have reached an agreement regarding part of the contested issues about the local administrative governance in Cyprus and the participation of the Greek and the Turkish communities in it. According to Makarios, great concessions were made to the Turkish side, and because of that he [Makarios] considers the agreement unacceptable.
Having evaluated the current situation on the island, Makarios held a meeting with the Greek Ambassador in Nicosia, to whom he protested the actions undertaken by the Greek government against him, as well as the attempts to resolve the Cyprus issue without him. [Makarios] threatened that he will force all officers, who are engaged in illegal activity, out of Cyprus, and if the need be, he will break relations with Greece. In order to guard against armed activity, Makarios has taken a number of measures: the police, along with the armed forces among the population are put on high alert; he has asked for political support from socialist countries via diplomatic means; he has sought the help of the democratic community in Western countries; he has turned for help to the British Government, which, according to available information, has stated that it is against a forceful solution to the Cyprus issue and so on.
In relation to the specified events, in Cyprus it is widely spoken about the preparation of a coup d'état against Makarios that would be coordinated with a new coup d'état in Greece. Some people consider officer Nef [phonetic spelling] – at the US Embassy in Athens – as the organizer of both; he has previously served in the US Embassy in Nicosia and has organized the 1970 assassination attempt against Makarios.
The political atmosphere in Greece is exacerbating (se izostria) [the situation].
It is known that numerous discords among the current governing circles in Greece exist regarding the future development of the regime. Since its establishment (in November 1973) three main groups (grupirovki) have formed within it:
- representatives of the movement (tendentsiata) for attracting people from the former political parties in the government and for the creation of non-parliamentary regime (President [Gen. Phaedon] Gizikis, ministers [George] Rallis and Triandafilakos [phonetic spelling] and others);
- group headed by general Ioannides (chief of the military police), which is for the continuation of the military regime in the spirit of the coup of April 21, 1967;
- group of young officers, the so called “kadafists” (“kadfisti”), with nationalistic anti-democratic attitudes, (with leader colonel Stiakis [phonetic spelling] – commander of the light tank troops (bronetankovite voiski)). It [the group] is also for preserving the military regime, and for introducing (provejdane) an even harder political line.
The groups of Ioannides and Stiakis are gradually forming a unified movement for preserving and continuing the military regime against the representatives of the movement (tendentsiata) for creating a parliamentary governance façade in the country. The two groups do not differ in their shared pro-American direction, but have different opinions on the internal [political] developments in Greece.
Recent information reveals that discords among these separate groups, especially in the circles of the officer corps, are becoming more acute. According to some reports (niakoi svedenia), general Ioannis Davos [phonetic spelling], the commander of the 3rd army corps (Solun), has headed a group in Solun's garrison of those discontented with the actions of general Ioannides. In the garrison, measures were taken for the arrest or the removal of Ioannides' followers from their military police posts, and for the establishment of full control by general Davos over the divisions (chastite i suidineniata) of 3rd army corps.
To prevent possible (eventualni) clashes, the regime has recently taken quick measures to iron out the disagreements in the army's command structure. Perhaps, it was to that end that the commander of the Greek armed forces, general Bonanos, [phonetic spelling] visited Solun. According to information that hasn't been confirmed, the troops of the Athens' garrison and other garrisons were placed on high military alert. General Ioannides was removed from the post of chief of the military police and was replaced by another individual, who was offered greater authority – [including] establishing control over the Central Intelligence Service (KYP) and the police force (politseiskite organi) outside of the army.
According to certain Western political observers in Athens, new developments are coming to fruition in Greece. They consider the visit of Makarezos (former deputy-prime minister in the government of Papadopoulus) to the USA to be connected to the possible formation of a new transitional government and attracting some activists of former political parties to that government.
DEPUTY-CHIEF OF THE GENERAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL ARMY (BNA) AND HEAD OF THE INTELLIGENCE SERVICE-GENERAL HEADQUARTERS (GSH)
GENERAL-LIEUTENANT [signature] (ZIKULOV)
[March 22, 1974]
Printed in 1 copy
Duplicated in 26 copies
PLEASE DO NOT FILE,
SUBJECT TO RETURN.
Translated for CWIHP by: Kristina N. Terzieva
The History and Public Policy Program welcomes reuse of Digital Archive materials for research and educational purposes. Some documents may be subject to copyright, which is retained by the rights holders in accordance with US and international copyright laws. When possible, rights holders have been contacted for permission to reproduce their materials.
To enquire about this document's rights status or request permission for commercial use, please contact the History and Public Policy Program at [email protected].