August 13, 1945
Record of Meeting Between T.V. Soong and Stalin
This document was made possible with support from Chun & Jane Chiu Family Foundation
Record of Meeting Between T. Soong and Stalin
13 August 1945, 12:00 a.m. to 1:30 a.m.
Soong: I sent a message to Chiang after our last meeting. Glad to tell you he has accepted Stalin’s desires.
Soong: Chiang wanted agree on boundaries first, but Stalin said it would take too much time. So Chiang accepts existing boundaries. That question is therefore excluded from questions to be settled.
(gives our draft).
Molotov: What purpose of reservation about ratification. All treaties are signed at the same time.
Soong: Is that agreeable?
Southern part of Manchuria is where most of industries are. Therefore wants manager to be Chinese for South Manchurian Railway. Stalin said that for military reasons wants both to be Soviet. How if we make condition that in case of war South Manchurian Railway manager will be Soviet.
Stalin: We have to maintain reliable communication with Port Arthur also in peace time. Cannot accept.
Soong: Make Chairman of board of directors really effective.
Chairman Chinese 6 Chinese and 5 Russian?
Lossovski: That's new proposal.
Soong: If we drop manager can you agree to add 1 Chinese in Board. We want to make appear to people really equals.
Stalin: Two roads.
Soong: May be one.
Molotov: This will not work. Manager will be paralyzed.
Soong: Board is policy forming, manager is operational. If difficulty in policy it goes to two governments.
Stalin: Where is it said?
Soong: No, but as a practical fact.
Stalin: Equal number with Chinese chairman having casting vote.
Stalin: Auditors commission. 3 each side - Russian chairman with casting vote. One or two railways?
Soong: One railway.
Stalin: Inspection Committee. Simultaneous meeting with the administration or not can be settled tomorrow with Molotov.
Soong: Another question. Goods in transit and luggage shall not pay any customs duties. We accept that for goods, we cannot for passengers' luggage.
Soong: These goods will have to pass customs inspection.
Molotov: We have following suggestion: "goods sent in transit in sealed cars shall not be subject to inspection".
Soong: We accepted that for military things but in every country goods are inspected.
Stalin: Accept, say military goods exempted.
Soong: O.K. Port installation in Dairen you want joint ownership. We want Chinese ownership, but we will give you facilities on lease without charge.
Molotov: We have a proposal. Accept Chinese wording re facilities but must have agreed minutes.
Soong: Second paragraph may be agreement but not in writing – a gentleman's agreement.
Stalin: Will it be reported to Chinese government?
Stalin: We do not deceive our allies. We consider that as a crime.
Soong: We shall consider it as a crime.
Soong: Dairen we said harbor master will be appointed by mayor from Soviet citizen in consultation with manager. Soviet proposal is reversed. We would like to have it appointed by mayor, because harbor facilities are part of port – no difference as it will be Soviet citizen.
Stalin: Who will issue instructions?
Molotov: 1927 book says all installations and facilities in Dairen belong to South Manchurian Railway. Administration of port was vested in special department of South Manchurian Railway. Natural that harbor master should be subordinated to railway.
Soong: Master appointed from Soviet citizen after consultation.
Stalin: Not question of appointment. He must be in touch with and subordinated to Railway.
Wang: Harbor master appointed by mayor after consultations and work under mayor and railway.
Stalin: Cannot have two heads.
Wang: Harbor master must also have something to do with mayor.
Stalin: Why? Port will have its own life, city its own life. Port is continuation of railroad. Otherwise may be congestion of goods. Mayor in charge of city's affairs not of port. Port is periphery of railroad.
Stalin: Harbor master to be appointed by Railway in consultation with mayor.
Wang: With concurrence of mayor.
Stalin: O.K. by agreement with mayor.
Soong: Only question left. Port Arthur. Chiang wanted Chinese/Soviet Commission – Soviet Chairman with additional vote.
(Molotov shows draft)
Soong: Suggest 2+2 with Soviet Chairman having casting vote.
Stalin: Latter part of our draft should be put somewhere also in article 5. Beginning article 3, want 3 Russians and 2 Chinese, and Russian chairman with one vote.
Molotov: Do you accept that Port Arthur should be outside the military zone?
Soong: Would not like to exclude it.
Molotov: New draft:
civilian administration in Port Arthur.
Soong: Why not take our text which was agreed and add "in city of Port Arthur the chief officer of the civilian administration is appointed in agreement with the Sino-Soviet military commission".
Stalin: Commission has nothing to do there. It has no administrative functions.
Wang: That would be better; corresponds to principle of joint use.
Stalin: Take Kronstadt; nothing can be done without consent of military authorities.
Military authorities should be master.
Soong: O.K . In agreement with the Soviet military command appointed "by Chinese government"?
Stalin: And dismissed by agreement.
Soong: Say city of Port Arthur.
Stalin: Yes, in the city.
Soong: Stalin agreed that deputy master be Chinese.
Soong: (Exchange of notes – changes made)
Molotov: Finance agreement. Same as for Czechs except that we paid for Czechs in Russia which you don't have.
Wang: This is according to Czech treaty – when we came we had no idea we have […copy cut off…]
Molotov: It will be a short time.
Stalin: Give currency to troops they will buy. Wherever we went, Poland, Czechoslovakia, we were given money.
Soong: Fighting for eight years. Lost richest parts. Our own army has not enough food, Americans pay everything. They give us lend-lease aid we don't give anything.
Stalin: We must buy. Russian money is not accepted. Are there American troops regular infantry?
Soong: Around Kunming.
Molotov: Otherwise army will take what it needs.
Stalin: We do not want to take without paying. You print your currency. Give us some.
Soong: Manchuria-Japanese currency.
Stalin: In satellite countries like Romania, we came with our own military leis which we printed ourselves. We announced rate of exchange between our leis and theirs, not to their advantage, and with that money we bought. We can't do that with ally.
Soong: Americans will land. They want some money from us but they pay us in dollars.
Stalin: You have no regular troops.
Soong: Yes we have.
Molotov: Which towns did they free in China?
Soong: Many officers attached to Chinese army.
Stalin: This is not same thing. I speak of 100 - 500,000.
Soong: I ask Stalin: be generous to poor country.
Stalin: We have been fighting five years - hard to get food supply. We got food supply the first days from Americans. If you don't help with money, we'll have to take food on receipt that Chinese government will compensate.
Molotov: You can give us Chinese currency to oust Japan currency. We have captured Labei, Solun, Heviamao beyond Hinggan. It will go quickly.
Soong: When will you get to Moukden.
Stalin: I don't know, they are beginning to resist. Don't know how long. We'll take Moukden in ten days.
Wang: What size of Soviet army in Manchuria at end of war.
Stalin: 800,000 - 1,000,000. Little less than one million. We want to encircle Japanese troops and take them prisoners if God help.
Soong: Hope you will take and force them to work.
Stalin: We will make them build Manchurian cities. They know how to work.
Soong: That looks fine.
Molotov: We could use Chinese currency. With your currency temporary military. Cannot use Soviet currency.
Soong: Will you give us some alternatives.
Stalin: We will think it over – don't know prices. Will reply tomorrow.
Soong: We have terrible inflation.
Stalin: We too… unpleasant.
Soong: Yours is much better – 1.500 before war.
Stalin: We will give you tomorrow.
T.V. Soong, Stalin, and others discuss Soviet plans in Manchuria. Topics include administrative rights, Soviet aid for China, and the progress in the war against Japan.
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