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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • May 28, 1960

    Ministry of Defense Memorandum to the Minister of Defense Andreotti, 'Tripartite Military Agreement'

    A collection of progress reports from the sub-commissions of the Accordo Military Tripartito F-I-G of 1957, a military alliance between Italy, France, and Germany, summarizing achievements and future objectives regarding development of co-owned nuclear weapons.

  • June 13, 1960

    Report on SHAPE meeting

    Analysis by the Head of the Italian Delegation to the North Atlantic Council (Alessandrini) of SHAPE meeting chaired by Gen. Norstad to examine Western/Soviet missile balance.

  • April 28, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) for Minister of Defense Andreotti, 'Chief of staff's visit to the US'

    Report of the head of the Italian defense department’s recent trip to the United States. Of importance was the discussion of NATO’s long-term plan (ten to fifteen years), the strategic defense of the Balkans, the maintenance of the United States’ NATO forces in Europe, and the need to push development of conventional weapons to avoid having to employ nuclear weapons.

  • May 02, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) for Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Document announcing the official abandonment of the policy of massive retaliation as a "deterrence" strategy. Opinion of the Italian senior minister of defense regarding the need for a more flexible NATO defense strategy in order to respond to any type of act of aggression is also presented.

  • May 19, 1962

    Memorandum by Chief of Defense Staff Aldo Ross to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of accepting the terms of nuclear warfare proposed at a NATO meeting in Athens. Whether or not to respond to a Soviet nuclear attack with an atomic weapon of equal strength was debated at the meeting, as well as the role that conventional weapons would play in such a conflict.

  • December 04, 1962

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Italy's permanent representative to NATO Alessandrini writes to PM Andreotti in preparation for the upcoming Paris summit. He shares general remarks about the state of the alliance and current issues in international relations focusing on the German question, Cuba, and Sino-Soviet relations.

  • May 10, 1963

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Alessandrini's report to PM Piccioni and Minister of Defense Andreotti discusses current questions of defense that will be brought up in the upcoming Ottawa session. According to him, NATO should focus on its internal organization and in particular, developing a common nuclear force, despite the technical and political challenges of such project.

  • December 16, 1963

    Minute of Meeting between GA and McNamara

    Discussion between Andreotti and McNamara concerning the political aspects of the MLF

  • April 29, 1964

    Briefing by Permanent Representative to NATO, 'Multilateral Force Project'

    " The document is part of a broad quantity of material prepared by the Italian Permanent Delegation at the Atlantic Council in Paris, and forwarded from Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense). It is a group of several briefings (8 in total), drafted by the RICA, in view of the next Atlantic Council meeting at ministerial level, which will take place in L'Aja. The briefings are divided according to the topics that will be addressed in that meeting. This document sums up the state of the negotiations for a Multilateral Force. The negotiations are now in their 7°month. Here there is a focus on Italy's position, which puts Italy in its current state of isolation with regards to this project. The document presents various reflections about the future prospects of this project."

  • March 12, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini

    The report examines the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance and the uncertainty of the current phase, which consists of forces not always appropriate to its cohesion. Alessandrini analyzes both the transformations in the international context and those inside NATO, the issue of political, economic and military consultation, the debate about the multilateral force and ANF. The conclusion underlines - despite all the current problems - the positive results of the history of NATO, an alliance that represents to date not only the deterrence against possible Soviet threats, but also the most important interlocutor in an eventual East-West dialogue.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Nuclear Problems'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to nuclear problems, the document hopes for a gradual way out from NATO's current paralysis, through a process of integration, rather then the attempt to solve also these problems by mere coordination among the Allies.

  • April 26, 1965

    Report by Permanent Representative to NATO to Minister of Defense, 'Defense Planning'

    The document is part of a broad series of "Informative Reports" drafted by RICA and sent by Alessandrini to Andreotti (Minister of Defense), concerning the forthcoming meeting in London of the Atlantic Council at a ministerial level. With regards to the Defense Planning, Italy claims (together with Germany) that it is absolutely indispensable to have available a well-balanced both conventional and nuclear arsenal, to preserve the SACEUR's credibility, on a political level too.

  • February 20, 1966

    Report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Planning Working Group of the "Special Committee" (Washington, 17th-18th February, 1966), with a letter from Andrea Cagiati'

    Cagiati sends Andreotti a report about the meeting in Washington, which concluded Giulio Andreotti's period as Minister of Defense. Cagiati thanks Andreotti for his work, that made sure that "in this period the relationship between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense has been strong and efficient like never before". The report describes the meeting (the first meeting of this working group) and the viewpoints of the participants, with special attention payed to the US nuclear policy. The document describes also the fields which require further investigations by the Working Group. There are Cagiati's personal reflections too.

  • May 23, 1984

    Report by Ambassador Petrignani to Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    Ambassador Petrignani analyses US economic and foreign policy in light of the upcoming presidential election . He predicts a narrow victory for Reagan, and discusses its potential implications on future foreign policy.

  • January 01, 1985

    Letter by Ambassador in Moscow Sergio Romano to Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    Italian Ambassador to Moscow, Sergio Romano, writes to Foreign Minister Andreotti to dicuss the topic of the Soviet attitude towards the SDI, and the unsuccessful efforts by the Soviets to pursue a similar defense system. Even though SDI is no longer a hindrance to superpower dialogue, it would be a mistake to assume that the USSR has given up the battle against the overall missile defense system.

  • May 24, 1985

    Report by Ambassador Petrignani to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    A detailed account of a meeting between Ambassador Petrignani and General Abrahamson, Director of SDI. Petrignani discloses the different elements of the SDI discussed, including the importance of SDI in modern deterrence, Soviet progress in strategic derfense, existing challenges with the SDI, and potential European participation.

  • December 09, 1985

    Letter by Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti to West German Minister of Foreign Affaris Genscher

    Foreign Minister of Italy, Giulio Andreotti wishes to exchange views with his German counterpart Genscher about the research phase of the SDI project, to try and find common ground before continuing talks with the United States on the subject of industrial cooperation in SDI research.

  • February 27, 1987

    Record of a Conversation of M. S. Gorbachev with Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Giulio Andreotti (Excerpt)

    Gorbachev and Andreotti discuss issues in the Middle East, including Soviet plans in Afghanistan and a possible international conference on the Middle East.

  • April 15, 1987

    Memorandum by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Meeting between the Minister [Andreotti] and Minister Genscher'

    Notes from the meeting between Foreign Minister of Italy, Giulio Andreotti, and Foreign Minister of West Germany, Hans-Dietrich Genscher. The theme of the discussion is strengthening of the bilateral relationship between Italy and West Germany, the two major non-nuclear powers in Europe.

  • May 06, 1987

    Letter from the Ambassador Sergio Romano to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Andreotti

    Italian Ambassador to Moscow, Romano, shares his reflections on the change in Soviet SDI strategy. Romano's analysis underlines the politically fragile and potentially dangerous situation that could emerge as the result of nuclear disarmament in Europe.