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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 26, 1960

    MAE-MD Joint Report on Question of Disarmament

    Report of the Joint MAE-MD working group on the issue of disarmament. The report is centered on the 10 military milestones of the Italian position (reduction of budgets for the defense, of actuals and armaments, balanced disarmament, weapons and nuclear secrets, cessation of experiments nuclear, special status zones, special defensive needs of Italy, abolition of US bases, Atlantic defense). It contains comments and suggestions related to different disengagement modalities in Central Europe. Included is a letter by CSMD A. Rossi to MD Andreotti with observations on the MAE report.

  • May 28, 1960

    Report to the Minister of Defense Andreotti on the Trilateral Military Agreement

    Report on the Trilateral Military Agreement that Italy signed with Germany, France and England in 1957. Defense Ministers from those countries decided to increase military cooperation. This report to the Italian Defense Minister Andreotti is about the outcomes of the alliance in the ballistic sector.The document describes all new weapons developed and new aircrafts projects on the floor.

  • May 28, 1960

    Ministry of Defense Memorandum to the Minister of Defense Andreotti, 'Tripartite Military Agreement'

    A collection of progress reports from the sub-commissions of the Accordo Military Tripartito F-I-G of 1957, a military alliance between Italy, France, and Germany, summarizing achievements and future objectives regarding development of co-owned nuclear weapons.

  • October 29, 1960

    Ten-Year Strategy Report by the General Staff of Defense (SMD) on Military problems of NATO to Minister of Defense Andreotti

    This ten-year strategy report created by the SMD is about perspectives and problems that NATO should face in developing a military strategy. Topics: French nuclear strategy; NATO tactical and strategic nuclear weapons; the relevance of conventional weapons; possible improvement in the decision to use nuclear weapons; nuclear cooperation and integration in NATO countries.

  • October 29, 1960

    General Staff of Defense (SMD) Report, 'NATO military problems. Ten-year plan'

    Report on France’s plan to establish a policy of autonomic thermonuclear dissuasion and an analysis of the negative effects such a plan would have, including weakening of the NATO shield and increased risk of nuclear attack on Western Europe.

  • April 28, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) for Minister of Defense Andreotti, 'Chief of staff's visit to the US'

    Report of the head of the Italian defense department’s recent trip to the United States. Of importance was the discussion of NATO’s long-term plan (ten to fifteen years), the strategic defense of the Balkans, the maintenance of the United States’ NATO forces in Europe, and the need to push development of conventional weapons to avoid having to employ nuclear weapons.

  • May 02, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) for Minister of Defense Andreotti

    Document announcing the official abandonment of the policy of massive retaliation as a "deterrence" strategy. Opinion of the Italian senior minister of defense regarding the need for a more flexible NATO defense strategy in order to respond to any type of act of aggression is also presented.

  • June 17, 1961

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Atlantic Alliance's strategy - National military way of thinking'

    Summary of NATO’s nuclear defense strategy, stressing the importance of utilizing both conventional and nuclear weapons and refraining from using more nuclear power than is absolutely necessary to combat Soviet aggression.

  • January 07, 1963

    MAE Analysis on NATO MLF after Nassau accords

    MAE analysis on Nassau accords, issue of NATO MLF, and availability of naval units for Polaris program. Includes preliminary considerations on Italian position to the Atlantic Council.

  • December 10, 1963

    Memorandum by Ministry of Defense, 'NATO strategy'

    This correspondence between the Ministry of Defense and embassies in Washington and London discusses the current state of NATO's (nuclear strategy) and the different views held by France, Great Britain, Germany and United States.

  • September 06, 1964

    Note by MD Cabinet on Von Hassel Declaration

    Note on declaration by FRG Defense Minister Von Hassel on Italy's position vis-à-vis MLF. Annexes missing.

  • September 30, 1964

    Note by MD Cabinet on Von Hassel Declaration

    Note on retraction by FRG Ministry of Defense of Von Hassel's declaration concerning the possibility of Italy's veto right within MLF. Annex missing.

  • March 10, 1965

    Note by Head of MD Cabinet on British Project

    Analysis of British ANF proposal and military considerations regarding defense of the European operational theater. The paper stresses that the proposal overlooks the issue, as it advances the idea of a strategic nuclear force external to Europe. Finally, it outlines criteria for organizing an Atlantic nuclear force which might better fit european military problems.

  • August 07, 1965

    MD Note on US and UK positions on MLF

    Note on MLF project elaborated by Paris standing group. It focuses on US project, British point of view, objectives of te ANF proposal, issues with the MLF and national ways to the nuclear deterrent.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'NATO's reorganization'

    The document outlines Italy's possible position - from the military point of view - for the probable forthcoming discussions related to NATO's reorganization, in the light of a likely French exit. Discusses the possible transfer of NATO headquarters, US military bases and facilities now deployed in France toward other NATO countries.

  • December 29, 1965

    Memorandum by General Staff of Defense (SMD) to the Minister, 'Special Committee. Working group for the planning'

    The note outlines the Italian policy with regards to the activities of the Working group on planning, of which Italy is a part together with the US, the UK, Germany and Turkey.

  • September 29, 1967

    Report, 'Nuclear Planning Group's decisions, meeting at ministerial level'

    The document presents NPG's decisions about the topics recently discussed at a meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense just concluded (Ankara, 28th-29th September 1967). The topics addressed were: ADM, tactical nuclear weapons, ABM, national participation in the military planning with regards to nuclear issues.

  • October 06, 1967

    General Staff of Defense (SMD), 'Summary Report of the 2nd Nuclear Planning Group meeting at the level of Ministers of Defense (Ankara, 28-29 September 1967)'

    The document reports the evolution of the meeting. Italy was there represented by the new Minister of Defense Tremelloni, the Chief of Staff Aloia, the diplomat Alessandrini (RICA) and others. Topics discussed: possible use of ADM; possible use of tactical nuclear weapons; ABM; Italian participation in military nuclear planning; information about the nuclear weapons deployed in NATO countries. Aloia believes that the discussion was fruitful, keeping in mind the complexity of the nuclear issues, that have just recently been able to count on permanent bodies appropriate to deal with them at a political level. France's negative behavior caused a postponement of the discussion about many military-political topics in the last years.

  • 1969

    Report, 'Legitimacy, situation and prospects of the Atlantic Alliance'

    Describes the current state of the Atlantic Alliance and the most critical points of debate. The report ends maintaining that NATO has now overcome the most difficult crisis of its existence.

  • June 28, 1971

    Letter from Adm. Polano to GA on CIPE Meeting

    Letter to Giulio Andreotti including copy of CIPE deliberations of June 4, 1971 concerning CNEN 5-year program. The letter discusses also broader nuclear and industrials issues.