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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • January 21, 1953

    VGU Information on Activities of the Swiss, Belgian, Dutch and Swedish Intelligences Services

    Report on the intelligence activities of some Western governments in Sofia. The report identifies the main areas of interest of the foreign intelligence services, names of some agents and names of collaborators.

  • January 22, 1955

    Record of Conversation from Premier Zhou's Reception of the Indonesian Ambassador Arnold Mononutu

    The Indonesian ambassador tells Zhou that the Indonesian government has sent out the letter of invitation inviting China to attend the Asia-African Conference. Indonesia hopes that PRC will send delegation to this conference and that the Chinese premier will visit Indonesia. Zhou Enlai expresses that after the Chinese government receives the official letter of invitation, the government will give official reply.

  • April 12, 1955

    Journal Entry of Ambassador Zhukov: The Arrival of Tikhonov in Jakarta

    This journal entry recounts the arrival in Jakarta of the Soviet author N.S. Tikhonov on March 28, 1955. A "large group" of Indonesians, including Prijono (an Indonesian politician and academic who had recently been awarded the Stalin Peace Prize) had gathered at the airport to hear a speech from Tikhonov. Tikhonov addressed the Indonesian crowd and thanked them and offered hopes for further positive Soviet-Indonesian relations.

  • October 08, 1956

    Seventh Meeting of the Main Committee, Conference on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Statement by South African Ambassador W.C. du Plessis)

    Statement by the South African Ambassador to the United States, W. C. du Plessis, at the Seventh Meeting of the Main Committee of the Conference on the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held at the United Nations. Du Plessis discusses several amendments intending to improve the representation of African and Middle Eastern countries in the IAEA, as well as several amendments regarding the structure of the organization and the IAEA board.

  • November 19, 1956

    Letter, Young Kee Kim to Chung Whan Cho

    Young Kee Kim reports Minister Cho on the Korean high school basketball team's trip in Philippines, foreign trade statistics produced by the Netherlands legation, and the direct procurement by the Philippines mission in Tokyo.

  • March 23, 1960

    Philip J. Farley, special Assistant to the Secretary of State, to Algie A. Wells, Director, Division of International Affairs, Atomic Energy Commission, 'Control of and Cooperation in Gas Centrifuge Research and Development Program'

    As West Germany and The Netherlands developed ultra-centrifuges without a classification policy, the AEC discuss ways to keep the technology under wraps without arousing suspicion from the other members of Euratom.

  • April 09, 1960

    Atomic Energy Commission, 'Gas Centrifuge Method of Isotope Separation,' AEC 610/15

    Having read the Union Carbide and General Electric reports on gas centrifuges, and taking into account West Germany and The Netherlands’ unwillingness to classify their programs, the AEC looks into other courses of action, including collaboration with the other two nations and even declassifying their own program.

  • April 22, 1960

    A.R. Luedecke, General Manager, Atomic Energy Commission, to Philip J. Farley, Department of State

    The AEC agrees to initiate talks with Western European nations in the attempt to control nuclear proliferation through the classification of gas centrifuge technology.

  • January 31, 1962

    Research Memorandum REU-25 from Roger Hilsman to Mr. Kohler, 'European Attitudes on Independent Nuclear Capability'

    Concerns about the credibility of US nuclear deterrence generated Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) General Lauris Norstad’s proposal for a NATO-controlled medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) force. This lengthy report represented INR’s assessment of “present and future European interest in national or multinational nuclear weapons capabilities,” including the MRBM proposal, and the extent to which an “enhancement of NATO's nuclear role” could “deter national or multinational European nuclear weapons programs.”

  • September 12, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 12 September 1962

    A letter from Gideon Boissevain, the Dutch Ambassador to Cuba reporting to Amsterdam. The letter primarily concerns the press coverage in Cuba of the rising crisis. Particular attention is paid to the Soviet guarantees of Cuban security and the American responses to the discovered missiles. In Cuba there is fear of an invasion by the United States making use of foreign legionnaires, despite Kennedy's claims there is no plan for an attack on Cuba.

  • September 21, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 21 September 1962

    In this letter to Amsterdam, Dutch Ambassador to Cuba Boissevain remarks on how the American blockade of Cuba can effect Dutch trade in the Caribbean. He compares the situation to the one faced Japan and the Yellow Sea in the early 20th Century: Japanese control of the sea north of Shanghai strangled international shipping, and the British Navy was unable (or unwilling) to keep the Japanese in check. Boissevain decries the blockade of Cuba as foolhardy and says Washington risks losing the support of NATO over this.

  • October, 1962

    Dutch Prime Minister Jan E. de Quay, 23-26 October 1962

    Short diary entries from Dutch Prime Minister Jan E. de Quay during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • October 19, 1962

    Minutes of the Council of Ministers, The Hague, 19 October 1962 (excerpt)

    The meeting of the Council of Ministers at The Hague revolved around the ongoing naval blockade of Cuba by the United States. The Dutch Assistant Secretary of State related that while the Americans are remaining firm on the Cuban situation, his visit to President Kennedy revealed he was very tense and was looking for a solution. The Foreign Ministry has yet to give an definitive stance on Cuba, but the primary concern for the Dutch Government was freedom of the sea and free flow of trade. The Minister of Justice concludes that while the government has no power to stop ships from going to Cuba, it does have the power to bar arms shipments.

  • October 23, 1962

    Cable from Washington (Schiff) via The Hague (CELER), 23 October 1962

    The Hague receives a cable from Washington reporting on the developing crisis in Cuba. There is talk of a "New Foreign Policy Move" by the government, though the British and French Embassies do not have any idea what is happening. The cable closes with a report that Kennedy has convened a special session of the National Security Council and cabinet, and is expected to make a statement later that day.

  • October 23, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 23 October 1962

    The letter discusses a speech made by Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Cuban Minister of Industry, in which he addressed the Young Communists' Union. He emphasized the need to improve the solidarity among the communists and the necessity of work (trabajo is mentioned in the speech six times) to improve the country. Boissevain notes that while the Young Communists were motivated to harvest coffee berries, almost all of them are on guard duty.

  • October 24, 1962

    Cable from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 24 October 1962

    The cable reports on Castro's speech, which does not offer much in news. The President of Brazil Goulart has instructed Ambassador to Cuba to investigate on the "offensive weapons."

  • October 24, 1962

    Cable from Dutch Embassy, Washington (Van Roijen), 24 October 1962

    This cable comes from Dutch Ambassador to the United States J. Herman van Roijen, regarding the subject of Cuba and the discovered Soviet missiles. Van Roijen reports on the current status of negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union, noting that the Soviets are willing to dismantle the missiles in Cuba if the Americans would do for "obscolescent bases near Soviet territory." The State Department fervently denied that any such tradeoff would happen or was even being considered.

  • October 24, 1962

    Cable from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 24 October 1962

    A short cable from the Dutch Embassy, reporting that a general mobilization order has been made by Castro, who will make a speech later in the day. The Havana airport is on lockdown.

  • October 24, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 24 October 1962

    In this letter to the Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs, Boissevain speaks about Cuban attempts to move native members of the diplomatic staff and housekeeping staff to provide information concerning their employers. A report is given about the French embassy. The gardener for the Dutch Embassy is reported to have been visited by government officials and was subject to beatings when he refused to give information about his Dutch employers.

  • October 25, 1962

    Letter from Dutch Embassy, Havana (Boissevain), 25 October 1962

    Boissevain relates the Cuban response to the crisis. In a speech, Castro does not deny the placement of nuclear weapons, and claims this kind of denial has been heard more from Khrushchev. The impression is one of building missile silos which look like "ground-to-ground" launch sites from the air. The Cuban government is satisfied with the developments from the UN Security Council regarding the issue, as evidenced by the Havana airport being reopened for international flights.