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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March, 1866

    Letter from George Kennan to Hattie Kennan, January 31- February 12, 1866

    During the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition to Siberia, American explorer George Kennan writes to his sister. Here, he contrasts the ethereal beauty of Siberian nature with the filthy interior of a subterranean dwelling of the settled Koryak, a Siberian Native tribe. Kennan strongly preferred what he called the “wandering Koraks,” who he saw as manly, strong, and independent, unlike the settled Koraks, who he felt had received the vices of civilization but none of the virtues.

  • July, 1866

    Letter from George Kennan to Doctor Morrill, July 4-16, 1866

    During the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition to Siberia, American explorer George Kennan writes to Dr. Charles Morrill of Norwalk, Ohio, Kennan's hometown. The letter lacks the final part and signature, as do several others reproduced here.

  • July 09, 1866

    Letter from George Kennan to Hattie Kennan, July 9, 1866

    During the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition to Siberia, American explorer George Kennan writes to his sister in a light and playful letter. The letter lacks the final part and signature.

  • October, 1866

    Draft Letter from George Kennan to Col. Charles Bulkley, September-October 1866

    In this draft letter, George Kennan the elder writes to his superior in the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition, Col. Charles Bulkley, to complain that promised supply ships never arrived due to logistical mistakes.

  • August 21, 1867

    Letter from George Kennan to Emma Hitchcock, August 21, 1867

    American explorer George Kennan writes to his cousin Emma Hitchcock, describing the sudden arrival of ships in Siberia with the news that the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition is to cease operations. Although Western Union had ordered this in October 1866, word did not reach Kennan until July 1867, nearly a year later. This letter is lacking the final pages and signature.

  • February, 1876

    Letter from George Kennan to John Kennan, February 4-16, 1867

    This letter from George Kennan the elder to his father is missing a large section, but one small part can be read, in which Kennan unburdens himself to his father regarding the misfortunes of the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition, owing in part to the mistakes of the expedition head, Col. Charles Bulkley.

  • September 02, 1938

    A Conversation Between Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov and the Governor Shicai Sheng which Occurred in the Kremlin on 2 September 1938

    Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, and Governor Sheng discuss Xinjiang's military, level of industrialization, and natural resources, as well as Governor Sheng's strong desire to join the Communist Party.

  • January 04, 1939

    Translation of a Letter from Governor Shicai Sheng to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov

    Governor Sheng Shicai expresses gratitude to Cdes. Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov for the opportunity to visit Moscow. After reporting critical remarks made by Fang Lin against the Soviet Union and the Communist Party, Sheng Shicai requests that the All-Union Communist Party dispatch a politically experienced person to Urumqi to discuss Party training and asks that the Comintern order the Chinese Communist Party in Xinjiang to liquidate the Party organization.

  • October 09, 1944

    Record of Meeting at the Kremlin, Moscow, 9 October 1944, at 10 p.m.

    Churchill, Eden, Stalin, and Molotov discuss the leadership in Poland, Britains interests in Greece and Hong Kong, the actions of Romania and Bulgaria during the war, Turkey, the need for the Great Powers to exert influence on the Balkans to prevent small wars, the leadership of Italy, interests in Bulgaria and Romania, the dividing of Germany and Germany's future, and the American plans in the war against Japan.

  • April 05, 1946

    Cable from B. Smith to Secretary of State

    Ambassador Smith and Stalin discuss relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, both expressing their desire to avoid a deterioration of relations in the post-war time frame.

  • April 26, 1949

    Secret Daily Information Bulletin for the Prime Minister Georgi Dimitrov, communicated from Sofia to Moscow

    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of the Internal Affairs create an informational bulletin on the domestic political developments.

  • 1950

    Onset and Development of Communism

    Discusses how Communism began in Lebanon, the importance of the educators’ visit to Moscow in the 1920s, the early conception of the role of Islam in the Lebanese Communist Party, the Communist Party in Palestine and the Israeli occupation, activities of the Communist Party in France, and internal affairs/organization of the Lebanese Communist Party.

  • July 13, 1950

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai or Mao Zedong (via Roshchin)

    Telegram from Stalin to Mao and Zhou Enlai detailing his response to the English protest concerning "the Korean question." Also, a request for confirmation of Chinese troop movements to the Sino-Korea border, in case of a repulse of North Korean forces. Finally, a confirmation of the plans to train Chinese pilots on Soviet jets, to be followed by the transfer of the jets to Chinese possession.

  • October 09, 1950

    Telegram from Kim Il Sung to Stalin (via Shtykov)

    Kim Il Sung requests that Koreans living in the Soviet Union be trained there for service in the Korean Army, explaining that the strong presence of the American military in Korea will not allow for on-site training. Shytkov attached his support of Kim’s request in this telegram to Stalin.

  • January 09, 1951

    Stalin's Conference with East European Delegates

    Stalin and Ministers from Eastern European countries discuss the current military status in Eastern Europe, focusing specifically on potential moves by the United States. Topics also included a discussion on the strength of Eastern European armed forces

  • January 30, 1951

    Ciphered telegram, Stalin to Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK Razuvaev with message for Kim Il Sung

    Telegram instructing Ambassador Razuvaev to discuss with Kim Il Sung details for reorganizing the KPA administrative and command structure.

  • February 16, 1951

    Ciphered Telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Zhou Enlai via Zakharov

    Telegram from Stalin to Zhou Enlai informing the latter that he would satisfy Chinese requests for advisors for their air force.

  • June 13, 1951

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Mao Zedong re meeting in Moscow with Gao Gang and Kim Il Sung

    Telegram from Stalin to Mao summarizing his discussions with Kim Il Sung and Gao Gang on the issues of military advisors, air force training and assistance, and the implications of a potential armistice.

  • June 30, 1951

    Telegram from New York to Moscow

    Relaying the notes from the Secretariat of the United Nations meeting on June 29 with a message from Ernest A. Gross to Trygve Lie attached (with an additional two documents attached to that).

  • June 30, 1951

    Ciphered telegram, Filippov (Stalin) to Mao Zedong

    Telegram from Stalin to Mao advising how to reply to the American request for armistice negotiations.