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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 12, 1959

    Cable from the Chinese Foreign Ministry, 'Summary of Conversation between Chairman Mao and Governor Sampaio of Brazil'

    President Mao Zedong exchanged views with Governor Sampaio on Chinese development, the role of Asia, Africa, and Latin America vis-a-vis the West, and Brazilian foreign policy. Mao also describes his personal studies of the English language.

  • 1960

    Soviet Report, 'Economic Cooperation between Latin America and the Countries of the Socialist Camp'

    In this draft report circa 1960, the Socialist economic position in Latin America is analyzed.

  • May 08, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with Guests from Latin America

    Mao discusses the economic development of China and Latin America as well as ongoing anti-imperialist struggles around the world with a visiting delegation from Latin America. He expresses support for their efforts and calls for unity.

  • November 19, 1960

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Ernesto 'Che' Guevara

    A diplomatic meeting of a global communist delegation. Many topics are discussed, including: the domestic situation in Cuba, especially the economic situation (for example: sugar sales); American influence and counter-revolutionaries; and comparison to the domestic situation in other Latin and Central American countries, such as: Peru, Colombia, Brazil, etc.).

  • December 20, 1960

    Conversation from [Mao Zedong's] Audience with an Ecuadorian Cultural Delegation and Cuban Women's Delegation

    Visitors from Ecuador and Cuba note that China has a long literary heritage, which should be used to advance socialism. They express surprise at the fact that Chinese artists continue to copy Western art and music. Mao agrees that more people should study their own heritage and culture.

  • March 04, 1961

    Cable from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Chairman Mao's Conversation with Cuban Women's Delegation and Ecuadorian Cultural Delegation'

    The Cuban women's and Ecuador cultural delegations questioned Mao Zedong's opinions on distinguishing the different categories of revolutions, such as the People's Revolution and Colonial Revolution; different approaches of revolutions, such as the Cuban Revolution versus Latin American revolution; and how to protect physical cultural resources.

  • June, 1961

    Record of proceedings between the Soviet KGB and the Interior Ministry of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic on the expansion of intelligence cooperation

    This document chronicles what was discussed between the KGB and Czechoslovak Interior Ministry concerning the coordination of intelligence and counter-intelligence acquisition and joint implementation of some of these measures. Global foreign policy and intelligence measures are discussed in places as diverse as the USA, NATO countries, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, the Vatican, Guatemala, Cuba, the Congo, Angola, Indonesia, India, England and France. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union pledge to fight perceived imperialist threats from the USA in Latin America, Africa, the Near and Middle East and Southeast Asia. The document lists companies of interest to the two parties, primarily scientific, armament and machine factories and companies.

  • August 19, 1961

    Telegram from the Brazilian Secretary of State for External Relations (Afonso Arinos) for the Cabinet in Brasilia, 19 August 1961, describing conversation between Ernesto “Che” Guevara and Richard Goodwin, Montevideo, Uruguay, 18 August 1961

    A telegram from the Brazilian Secretary of State for External Relations (Afonso Arinos) describing a conversation between Ernesto “Che” Guevara and Richard Goodwin in Montevideo, Uruguay. At this meeting, Mister Guevara and Mister Goodwin, speaking as “enemies”, made a general appreciation of Cuban-American relations. Affirming that Cuba today definitely was of the sphere of influence of the United States. They also discuss Cuba's economic situation.

  • September 28, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticos

    A conversation about the situation in Brazil. Cuba's diplomatic relations to other countries around the world are also discussed, especially as they relate to the recent U.S. blockade of Cuba.

  • October 02, 1961

    Memorandum of Conversation between Mao Zedong and Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticos in Beijing

    A conversation about the situations in Venezuela and Peru in regards to their foreign relations with Cuba. Both countries also offer a comparison to the overall situation in both Latin and Central America.

  • December 02, 1961

    Top Secret Bulgarian Politburo Resolution on Arms Delivery to Cuba

    A proposal from the Minister of Foreign Trade, G. Kambuliev, for the donation to Cuba of 35,000 automatic rifles, recently decommissioned by the Bulgarian military.

  • December 02, 1961

    Top Secret Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Resolution on Arms Delivery to Cuba

    In a report to First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhivkov, the Minister of Foreign Trade, Georgi Kumbiliev, reviews Cuba’s need for weapons and credit. Kumbiliev relays a weapons request for Latin American revolutionary movements and an extension of financial assistance to Cuba. Kumbiliev advises Zhivkov to respond to the Cuban government’s requests and consider providing surplus Bulgarian weapons free of charge and extending a 5-year-term loan to Cuba starting 1 Jan 1963.

  • December 26, 1961

    Brazilian Foreign Policy toward the Cuban Issue - Secret Foreign Ministry Conclave - Meeting of the Planning Commission on Subjects Related to the VIII Consultative Meeting of the OAS

    A meeting of Brazilian diplomats to discuss Brazil's foreign relations with Cuba and its bilateral relations with the United States.

  • December 27, 1961

    Meeting of the Planning Commission on Subjects Related to the VIII Consultation Meeting

    A collection of Brazilian ambassadors and ministers gather to meet and discuss the impact of Cuba-US relations on the region in preparation for a gathering of Organization of American States (OAS) foreign ministers scheduled for 22-31 January 1962. The government officials’ primary concerns are to manage the impact of the "Cuban problem" on domestic Brazilian politics and to develop an independent line of thought, without jeopardizing its relationship with the US. The officials want to craft an approach for the OAS meeting that will not cause Brazil to become a mediator between hostile parties nor incite Brazilian public opinion in favor of communism.

  • 1962

    Address by V. V. Volsky on Trends in the Economic Development of Latin America

    Address at a Soviet conference on "The Problems of the National Liberation Movement in Latin America" circa 1962. Volsky discusses the problems of the Latin American economy

  • January 17, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 17 January 1962

    Jelen reports to Krajewski on the Punta del Este, based on conversations with Blas Roca [Caldeiro], [Raul] Roa [Garcia], and [Carlos] Lechuga, about the situation in various Latin American countries: Mexico, Bolivia, Columbia, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Cuba.

  • January 18, 1962

    Report from Cultural Attaché at the Israeli Embassy, Rio de Janeiro, Smeul Benizi, 18 January 1962, Subject: 'Brazil – Cuban-Latin American Relations'

    Cultural Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in Rio de Janeiro, Smeul Benizi, discusses the proposal from Brazil to the Organization of American States (OAS) suggesting that Cuba become a neutral country, like Finland.

  • January 25, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 25 January 1962

    Jelen reports that the information he is getting from the Punta [del Este] is fragmentary. He also reports that Fidel decisively rejected the concept of “Finlandization” of Cuba.

  • February 03, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 3 February 1962

    Jelen discusses the eighth meeting of consultation of foreign ministers of the Organization of American States at Punta del Este and their decision to exclude the current government of Cuba from the inter-American system.

  • February 05, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 5 February 1962

    Jelen continues his reporting on the eighth meeting of consultation of foreign ministers in Punta del Este by discussing diplomatic relations between Central and South American countries and their opinions on the American sanctions against Cuba.