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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • June 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Iraq Ulvi Lulo to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    This document is a telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Baghdad, Ulvi Lulo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania dealing with the preparation of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries. The ambassador writes that there are disputes among the leaders of the non-aligned states on the location of the conference. Nasser, Nehru and Castro ask for the conference to take place on the territory of their respective countries. In addition, Nehru requests that certain neutral Western countries such as Sweden, Austria, and Switzerland, should participate in the conference. According to Lulo, these Western countries are supporters of American policy.

  • June 05, 1961

    Telegram from Nesti Nase, the Albanian ambassador to the USSR, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Nase writes that the Soviet government carefully attempts to give the conference of non-aligned countries an anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist character. The Soviet position on these issues is based on the resolution prepared by Asian and African countries in the 15th session of the UN on disarmament, which in the end was not voted upon, and on the declaration on decolonization approved by the UN.

  • June 06, 1961

    Telegram from an official in the Albanian embassy in Beijing Lilo Zeneli to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Zeneli writes about his meeting with the 2nd Secretary in the Cuban embassy in Beijing who asked Zeneli about his opinion on the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade. Zeneli answered that the Albanian government greets any initiative which aims to help the struggle against imperialism and colonialism with the objective of establishing peace. He also declared that Yugoslavia is not a non-aligned state because it participated in the Balkan military pact with Greece and Turkey, both of which are members of NATO. The 2nd Secretary of Cuba expressed his hope that there will be positive results during the conference that would lessen the international tensions between the two blocs.

  • June 07, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Cairo, Delo Balili, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The ambassador informs the Ministry that the conference of non-aligned countries is still in session, and is divided into three groups. Balili calls the first group “rightists”, which includes India and Yugoslavia among others. He calls the second group “leftists”, which includes Cuba, Guinea, Somalia, etc. The last group, according to Balili, are the “centrists” which include the United Arab Republic, Ghana, etc. In this telegram, Balili describes the contentions between the three groups.

  • June 10, 1961

    Telegram from Delo Balili to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Balili writes that the location of the upcoming conference of non-aligned countries will be a contentious issue for the participants. The UAR and India have proposed Belgrade. This location is supported by the British and Americans.

  • June 12, 1961

    Report on the meeting between Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, and Raúl Roa

    Raúl Roa is the head of the Cuban delegation to the preparatory conference for the upcoming non-aligned countries conference. Roa invited all the diplomats of socialist countries to his mansion for lunch on June 9. He informed the diplomats about the different groups established in the conference concerning their opinions on revisionism. On one hand, was India, Cambodia, Nepal, Burma, Algeria and Yugoslavia. All of them request that there will be no display of anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist spirit at the conference. On the other hand, Cuba, Guinea, Mali, Ghana, Ceylon, and to a certain extent the UAR and Iraq, requested that there should be anti-imperialist and anti-colonialist discourse during the conference. Roa also informed that Belgrade was decided upon to be the location of the conference. At first upon hearing that Belgrade would be the location Roa hesitated, but later he decided to participate in order to create a “left-wing” group with anti-imperialist character in the conference. He received the recommendation for the creation of this group from the Soviet, Chinese and Czech delegations. After the meeting, Malile was informed that Roa has prolonged his stay in Cairo because the Arabs and Indians agreed jointly to make some changes to the conference documents during their printing. Roa intended to stay in order to halt these actions.

  • June 14, 1961

    Telegram from Gaqo Paze, the Albanian Ambassador to the GDR, to the Foreign Affairs Ministry of Albania

    The Chinese ambassador to Berlin expressed to Gaqo Paze that the participation of Cuba in the conference of non-aligned countries, which is to be held in Belgrade, is a positive act because the Cuban representatives will speak out against American imperialism. In addition, the Chinese ambassador said that the act of organizing the conference is not a positive development.

  • June 15, 1961

    Telegram from the vice-minister of foreign affairs of Albania, Vasil Nathanalili, to the Albanian embassy in Budapest

    The person-in-charge of the Hungarian embassy in Tirana informed Vasil Skorovoti, the Albanian diplomat in the Albanian Foreign ministry, that the Hungarian government wants to consult with the friendly governments of the socialist camp on the proposal to have the same stance on the non-aligned countries conference. The Hungarian government does not approve of the conference, but it thinks that the divisions among the non-aligned countries should be exploited by the socialist bloc in order to change the character of the conference to one of anti-imperialism and anti-colonialism. The Hungarian government wants to know the Albanian government’s stance on this issue. The Albanian government asks the Albanian embassy in Budapest to gather information on this issue in order to respond to the Hungarian government as soon as possible.

  • June 23, 1961

    Telegram from Gaqo Paze, the Albanian Ambassador in GDR to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Gaqo Paze reports from Berlin that during the conversation between the Yugoslav Ambassador to Berlin Voshnjak, and the Soviet ambassador to Berlin Pervukhin, the latter had asked if Yugoslavia would subscribe to the peace treaty with the GDR if the Western states would not accept to sign the peace treaty with both German states. Voshnjak avoided giving a direct answer several times, but in the end he implicitly expressed, according to Gaqo Paze, that Yugoslavia would not sign the treaty.

  • July 18, 1961

    Telegram of Delo Balili, the Albanian ambassador to Cairo, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Balili reports that the Indian ambassador to Cairo had told him that President Nehru would participate personally in the conference of non-aligned countries because the main goal of the conference was to find a formula for rapprochement between the Soviet Union and the United States, and for disarmament in general. According to the Indian ambassador, the disappearance of the issues of colonialism and racial discrimination from the conference documents are not urgent problems. In November, Nehru would meet with Khrushchev and, later with Kennedy.

  • July 26, 1961

    Report on the 1st conference of the non-aligned countries of September 1st, 1961 sent by Tahmaz Beqari, the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade was organized when Indonesia and other countries of Asia and Africa were attempting to organize a Second Bandung Conference. Tito and Nehru, trying to minimize the influence of China in the Asian and African countries, initiated a conference that they called the Conference of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade. The document discusses the 24 participating countries, the agenda, the proceedings, the different groups among the delegation and the two main documents that the conference adopted: the manifesto and the declaration. The manifesto, titled “The Danger from the War and the Call for Peace,” according to the Albanian ambassador, was adopted in a revisionist spirit, calling on Khrushchev and Kennedy to maintain peace. Meanwhile, the declaration criticized colonialism and imperialism. The Belgrade conference did not decide on any specific issues and did not reach any important conclusions. In Albania, a week after the conference, the journal “Zeri i Popullit” (Voice of the People) wrote an article in which it identified Tito as an agent of imperialism and stated that Yugoslavia was not an non-aligned country as it participated in the Balkan Pact.

  • August 01, 1961

    Telegram from Jovan Andoni, an official in the Albanian Embassy in Poland, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    Andoni reports that the advisor in the Cuban embassy in Warsaw had told him that he has not received any official information from the Cuban government and, according to him, Cuba would not participate in the conference of non-aligned countries in Belgrade.

  • August 15, 1961

    Telegram from the Enver Hoxha to Ho Chi Minh via Gac Mazi, the Albanian Ambassador to Moscow

    This is a telegram from the 1st Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania Enver Hoxha to President Ho Chi Minh delivered via the Albanian Ambassador to Moscow Gac Mazi. This telegram discusses the possible visit of Ho Chi Minh to Tirana. Hoxha orders Mazi to contact Ho Chi Minh urgently and deliver a copy of the telegram to him. Enver Hoxha believes that the disputes between the various leaders of the socialist countries in Europe and the Party of Labor in Albania are serious and cannot be resolved simply or immediately. He assigns the blame for these disputes to the leaders of the other socialist countries. Hoxha asks Ho Chi Minh to talk to these leaders about these disputes before coming to Tirana. The reason for this is that other European communist leaders have begun denigrating the Party of Labor of Albania, the Albanian government, and the Albanian people. Hoxha writes that the Albanian leadership is still carefully analyzing the causes of the disputes. Lastly, he informs Ho Chi Minh that he will be ready to discuss the Tirana trip further in the second half of November of 1961.

  • August 29, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian Ambassador in Beijing Reiz Malile to the Albanian Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu

    The Albanian Ambassador in Beijing Reiz Malile writes to the Prime Minister, Mehmet Shehu, and reports on his discussion with Marshal Chen Yi, the Chinese foreign minister, about a possible visit from the President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh to Tirana. Chen Yi suggests that Malile go to Vietnam for a national celebration and he promises a Chinese plane as transportation for his trip.

  • September 03, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Belgrade, Tahmaz Beqari, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania

    The ambassador reports on the proceedings of the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries, and about the differences and nuances of the stances of various delegations. Except India, Libya, and the United Arab Republic, all delegations were in favor of China’s participation in the United Nations. In addition, Nehru pointed out that colonialism is in agony while the Ghanaian, Cuban, Iraqi, Nepalese and Ethiopian delegations claimed to the contrary. When Dorticós, the Cuban President, began unmasking American imperialism, the diplomats of Western countries left the conference. The diplomats of friendly countries, according to Beqari, called the speeches of the conference “80% positive.”

  • September 04, 1961

    Telegram from the Albanian ambassador in Budapest, Edip Cuci, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    The Albanian ambassador reports that the Hungarian press published Khrushchev’s message to the Belgrade conference of non-aligned countries and excerpts of different speeches by participants of the conference. Hungarian television showed excerpts from the conference as well.

  • October 30, 1961

    Telegram from the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ung Van Khiem to the Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla

    This document is a telegram from the Foreign Affairs Minister of North Vietnam Ung Van Khiem to the Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla. Van Khiem describes to Shtylla the history of American-Vietnamese relations from the 1954 Geneva Convention until 1961. Van Khiem stresses that the situation in South Vietnam has worsened after President Kennedy took office. During May 1961, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson came to Saigon and discussed with the President of the Republic of Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem the prospect of enlarging American presence in South Vietnam. Since that time the South Vietnamese government, with American support, organized internment camps and a cordon sanitaire in the area of the South Vietnamese borders with Laos and Cambodia. Van Khiem sees these actions as menacing to peace in Indochina, and Southeast Asia more generally. The North Vietnamese government, abiding by the Geneva Convention on Indochina, proposed organizing a conference with the South Vietnamese authorities in order to discuss free elections throughout the country and the reunification of Vietnam. The government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam denounced the American plans to enlarge the scope of aggressive actions in Vietnam and, especially, the plan to deploy the U.S. Army in South Vietnam.

  • December 02, 1961

    Telegram from Behar Shtylla to Ung Van Khiem

    This document is a telegram from Albanian Foreign Affairs Minister Behar Shtylla to the Foreign Affairs Minister of North Vietnam, Ung Van Khiem. Shtylla shares the same indignation as the Vietnamese minister towards the dangerous situation arising in Vietnam. According to Shtylla, Kennedy is trying to transform South Vietnam into a base of operations for aggression directed against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Taking into account other actions towards Laos and Cambodia, he believes Kennedy is attempting to convert Indochina into an American base. Shtylla states that the American policy in Vietnam violates the general international conventions of conduct, as well as the Vietnamese people’s sovereignty. Shtylla expresses full solidarity with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and supports its request that the chairmen of the Geneva Conference take measures against the American inference in South Vietnam.

  • May 02, 1962

    Report on Reiz Malile’s Ambassadorial Credentials Sent to the DRV and his Discussions with the DRV Leaders

    The new ambassador to China and to the DRV, Reiz Malile, reports on his meetings with Vietnamese leaders during his visit to Vietnam on 14 – 28 of April 1962. Malile states that he met DRV President Ho Chi Minh, the Prime Minister of the DRV, Fam Van Dong, Minister of Foreign Affairs for the DRV, Ung Van Khiem, and 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Working Party of Vietnam, Le Duan. In his discussions, they support the Albanian government's stance on Khrushchev and the Soviet leadership in general. Meanwhile, the Vietnamese leaders avoid discussions targeted against the Soviet Union and, instead, propose the need for unity in the international communist movement. They also ask to stop the polemic in the media in order for the other bloc not to profit from the internal disputes of the communist camp. According to Malile, among the Vietnamese leadership there is a strong spirit not to cause a break with the Soviet Union. Malile claims that the Vietnamese communists are not fully informed on Albanian-Soviet disputes, which they view as simple disagreements between brothers. According to Malile, there is a great deal of Chinese and Soviet propaganda concerning the political international situation that presents differing points of view.

  • June 06, 1964

    Minutes of the meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s delegate Tran Dinh Thu with an Albanian official Shpresa Fuga on June 6, 1964

    This document is a report on a meeting between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam’s delegate, Tran Dinh Thu, with an Albanian official, Shpresa Fuga. Tran Dinh Thu reveals his appreciation for Albanian political support towards the cause of the South Vietnamese people against the United States. Tran Dinh Thu is also upset about the lack of actual financial support from the Soviet Union by comparing it to the more commendable support of the United States government for the government of South Vietnam. He asks for further Albanian support for the South Vietnamese people and asks that awareness of the Vietnam conflict be spread among the Albanian population.