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Digital Archive International History Declassified


  • 1954

    The POW Scandal in Korea

    According to A.B Carey, one of the lessons learned from fighting the Kremlin and its “communism” ideology is evidently seen amongst the Korean and Chinese prisoners of war. Both groups of POW not only disapprove of the communism but would also actively fight against it if they had the opportunity. Carey uses ten ideas which denounce the Kremlin as the one responsible for the lies and bellicosities during the Cold War. He also proceeds to demonstrate ways the free world can defeat this communist caucus.

  • 1954

    Freedom to Non-Repatriated Prisoners of War

    This note warns that the communists will try to convince the world that these “freed” prisoners are not really freed and during this processing and resettlement period the world will be watching the Republic of Korea and the Republic of China's actions.

  • January 15, 1954

    Report, Legation of the Hungarian People’s Republic in Beijing to the Foreign Ministry of Hungary

    Report from the Hungarian Chargé d’Affaires in Beijing which talks about the dispute between China, North Korea and the US over POW's. The report also speculates on the reason for India's position on this issue.

  • January 24, 1954

    Statement from A.G. Krymov (Guo Zhaotang), a Prisoner in Noril’sk and Former Member of the Chinese Communist Party and the Executive Committee of the Comintern

    A statement from A.G. Krymov, where he pleas for cancellation of his verdict to a labor camp and to gain permission to serve the Communist cause in either the Soviet Union or China. In March 1938 he was arrested by the NKVD in Moscow and exposed as an enemy of the people.

  • February, 1954

    Resolution on Strengthening the Party's Unity

    After discussing the factionalist activities of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi, the Fourth Plenary Session of the Seventh CCP concludes by passing the 'Resolution on Strengthening the Party's Unity'.

  • February 02, 1954

    From the Journal of Ambassador Pavel Yudin: Memorandum of Conversation between Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai

    A conversation between Soviet Ambassador to China Pavel Yudin, CCP Secretary Liu Shoaqi and Prime Minister Zhou Enlai. The primary topic of discussion was the ongoing Gao Gang case, and his attempts to split the Communist Party. The cohesion and unity of the Party was of primary concern, as both feared Gao Gang's power and influence over the party may threaten the country's political stability as a whole.

  • February 13, 1954

    From the Journal of Ambassador P. F. Yudin: Record of a Conversation with Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai on 13 February 1954

    Yudin records a conversation he had with Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai, who described events in the "Gao Gang Affair," discussing at length the anti-party activities of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi.

  • February 23, 1954

    From the Journal of Ambassador Pavel Yudin: Record of Conversation with Mao Zedong, 4 January 1954

    A memorandum of conversation between Mao Zedong and Pavel Yudin. Yudin informs Mao about the Soviet "uncovering" of Lavrentii Beria's espionage. Mao thanks for the information and notes that it will be highly useful for China. He hints that the political atmosphere in the CCP had been "unhealthy" as some people have tried to use others' mistakes to undermine their reputation. In this connection, Mao refers to Zhang Guotao as a Guomindang spy, and also speculates that Wang Ming may have been recruited by the Guomindang as early as 1930.

  • February 25, 1954

    Excerpt of Mao Zedong's Edits to the Outline of Zhou Enlai's Speech

    Mao Zedong reviews a speech by Zhou Enlai on the Gao Gang Affair.

  • February 25, 1954

    Outline of Comrade Zhou Enlai's Speech at the Discussion Meeting on the Gao Gang Question

    Zhou Enlai outlines his criticisms of Gao Gang and the reasons for his purge from the Chinese Communist Party.

  • February 26, 1954

    Cable from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Committee to CCP Central Committee, via Comrade Yudin

    Comrade Pavel Yudin asks the CCP to inform Comrade Ho Chi Minh that the discussion at the upcoming conference in Geneva will include the Korea question and restoring peace in Indochina.

  • February 26, 1954

    CIA Review of Radio Liberty Broadcasting

    A CIA memorandum reviews Radio Liberty policy guidance to date and outlines how it differs from the Voice of America.

  • February 26, 1954

    Letter from Liu Shaoqi to Mao Zedong

    Liu Shaoqi asks for instructions before distributing the outline of Zhou Enlai's speech on Gao Gang to cadres throughout the Communist Party.

  • February 28, 1954

    Letter from Mao Zedong to Comrade Liu Shaoqi and the Secretariat

    Mao Zedong approves Hu Qiaomu and Chen Boda's revisions to Zhou Enlai's speech on the Gao Gang Affair.

  • March 01, 1954

    Report of Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yi, and Tan Zhenlin concerning the Discussion Meeting of the Rao Shushi Question

    Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yi, and Tan Zhenlin summarize the seven meetings held to discuss the purge of Rao Shushi.

  • March 02, 1954

    'Preliminary Opinions on the Assessment of and Preparation for the Geneva Conference,' Prepared by the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs (drafted by PRC Premier and Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai) [Excerpt]

    Zhou discusses the need to make agreements at the Geneva conference in order to open a path for discussion and negotiation with the west. Zhou notes that because the US, France and Britain are not united in their opinions, the CCP must hold fast to their positions on the peaceful unification of Korea, and of peace in Indochina. Finally, Zhou suggests that the CCP prepare to discuss issues of trade, relaxing international tensions, and breaking the US embargo, although these issues are not on the agenda.

  • March 03, 1954

    Instructions from the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

    The Central Committee provides instructions on transmitting and discussing Zhou Enlai's speech on the Gao Gang issue.

  • March 06, 1954

    Letter, James A. Van Fleet to President Syngman Rhee

    General Van Fleet addresses his concern for the Far East. While some Americans are calling for US withdrawal from South Korea, he insists that the US has a “morale and a material obligation” in the Peninsula.

  • March 06, 1954

    Cable from Zhang Wentian, 'Reporting the Preliminary Opinions of Our Side on the Geneva Conference to the Soviet Side'

    Zhang Wentian discusses his visit with Molotov. During this meeting, Molotov says delegations from China, Korea, and Vietnam are welcome to Moscow before the Geneva conference to discuss its proceedings. Molotov also mentions several issues that still need to be discussed, such as relaxing tensions in Asia, Korean unification, ministers in attendance at the conference, and India's participation in the Indochina discussion.

  • March 06, 1954

    From the Journal of Molotov: Secret Memorandum of Conversation between Molotov and PRC Ambassador Zhang Wentian

    Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov and PRC Ambassador to the USSR Zhang Wentian discuss their respective views on the situations in Korea and Vietnam in preparation for the upcoming Geneva Conference.