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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • January 04, 1967

    Report, Embassy of Hungary in Romania to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry

    Romania seeks to construct electric power plant, with aid of Great Britain, as part of a 10-year electrification plan.

  • January 11, 1967

    Cooperation between the Czechoslovak and Cuban Intelligence Services

    The report introduces Czechoslovak's assistance in the Operation MANUEL after the isolation of socialist Castro regime. Cuba looked for alternative routes in Europe in order to promote and influence the revolutionary movement in Latin America. Czechoslovakia assistance in the operation is of a strictly technical nature and its intelligence service is doing its utmost to protect the interests of the country by securing all technical matters. The report says that terminating the assistance was not possible for both practical and political reasons-- all direct flights between Czechoslovakia and Cuba would be suspended and a drastic cooling off of relations between two governments. Czechoslovak's refusal in assisting the operation would be interpreted as a political decision to suspend assistance to the national liberation movement in Latin America countries. However, the reports says that the assistance of Czechoslovak intelligence service to the operation is in no way amounts to agreeing with its political content and constitutes a minor aspect of intelligence work. The Soviet intelligence was also involved in organizing the operation in Moscow and offered assistance to its Cuban counterpart.

  • January 13, 1967

    Transcript of Reception by Comrade Nicolae Ceausescu of the Foreign Minister of Holland, Joseph Luns

    This document is the transcript of a conversation between Joseph Luns, Foreign Minister to Holland, and Nicolae Ceausescu, in which the two leaders discuss the Vietnam War and the suggested reasons that the United States is reluctant to withdraw from the conflict.

  • January 13, 1967

    Transcript of Reception by Comrade Ion Gheorghe Maurer of the Foreign Minister of Holland, Joseph Luns

    This document is a transcript of the meeting between Ion Gheorghe Maurer and Joseph Luns, the Foreign Minister of Holland, during which they discuss the situation in Germany and the Vietnam War, and their effects on foreign relations with the Soviet Union and the United States.

  • January 13, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between ACDA Director William C. Foster and West German Ambassador Heinrich Knappstein, 'Draft Articles of Non-Proliferation Treaty,' with draft treaty attached

    In this conversation, ACDA director Foster met with Ambassador Knappstein for an extended discussion of the NPT. Topics included the treaty’s compatibility with a future European federation, consultations by the NATO Nuclear Planning Group, the definition of a nuclear weapon, and the prohibition of national control over “peaceful nuclear explosives.”

  • January 17, 1967

    Memorandum of Conversation between General Counsel of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency George Bunn and Soviet Counselor Yuli M. Vorontsov, 'Non-Proliferation Treaty and Other Arms Control Matters'

    Information about the recent U.S.-West German discussions had leaked to the press and in this conversation, Vorontsov “wanted to know what we had told the Germans with respect to participation in a European nuclear force.” Bunn told him that the “Germans were concerned that nothing in the treaty stand in the way of steps which might ultimately produce a United States of Europe.”

  • February 07, 1967

    Note to the French Council of Ministers on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    This note to the Council of Ministers details the jurisdiction and consequences stemming from the American request that an Article III be included into the NPT.

  • February 10, 1967

    Notes by the Euratom Commission to the Council of Ministers

    These notes from the Euratom Commission to the Council of Ministers discuss the inclusion of an agreement on nonproliferation and between the United States and the Soviet Union and the impact of oversight.

  • February 22, 1967

    US Department of State, Oral Note, 'Interpretations Regarding Draft Non-Proliferation Treaty Formulations'

    As an assurance to the Germans and other NATO allies, ACDA and the State Department drew up a memorandum on the interpretation of the NPT draft treaty. The key point was that the treaty “deals only with what is prohibited, not what is permitted.”

  • February 27, 1967

    Note by the Euratom Commission, 'Construction of an Eventual Isotopic Separation Plant'

    This note from the Euratom Commision details the possible construction of an isotope separation plant in the European Community.

  • February 28, 1967

    Interview with M. Margulies, German member of the Commission by Karl H. Schwarz, 'The Euratom Treaty Bursts'

    This interview with M. Margulies describes the Euratom Treaty as a tangible manifestation of a desire for peace.

  • March 01, 1967

    Research Memorandum REU-13 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Reasons for West German Opposition to the Non-Proliferation Treaty'

    By the late winter/early spring of 1967, controversy over the NPT was hurting US-West German relations, placing them at perhaps their lowest point during the Cold War. While this report suggested that West Germany would ultimately sign the Treaty, despite objections, only weeks later the INR issued another report wondering whether Bonn was trying to wreck the NPT.

  • March 01, 1967

    Gottfried William Moser, ACDA/Bureau of International Relations, 'Consultations with the FRG'

    In this report and after criticism over the NPT in West Germany, ACDA official G. William Moser looked into the chronology of U.S.-West German interactions. Noting that Washington had “stood foursquare with [the FRG] on the question of maintaining the MLF option under a non-proliferation treaty,” he highlighted a decision made by Rusk on 18 October 1966 to defer consultations with Bonn until he was sure that the Soviets were “serious” about the new Article I language. He concluded that Washington may need to explain Rusk's rationale.

  • March 02, 1967

    Study on the Comparison between IAEA and Euratom Safeguards by the Department of Safeguards

    This paper analyzes the safeguard systems in the Euratom Treaty and the IAEA Statute. The study concludes that Euratom has tighter and more complex control of the materials for which it is responsible, but the methods used in the two systems are comparable and compatible.

  • March 03, 1967

    Research Memorandum REU-14 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'How Major NATO Countries View the Prospect of an ABM Deployment'

    Despite new information that the Soviet Union was deploying anti-ballistic missile defenses around Moscow, the United States had not yet decided to deploy its own ABM defenses (although a decision would be made later in the year) and there was some hope that U.S.-Soviet talks would prevent an ABM race. If, however, talks failed, some NATO allies worried about the “adverse consequences” of an ABM race, especially whether having an ABM system might incline Washington toward risk taking.

  • March 10, 1967

    US Embassy Bonn Telegram 10500 to State Department, 'Ambassador Foster’s Meeting with Chancellor Kiesinger'

    To try to strengthen West German confidence, ACDA director William C. Foster met with Chancellor Kiesinger, who expressed concern about the danger of “erosion” and “uncertainty” in U.S.-West German relations and the need for more time for consultations. Kiesinger’s “own idea was that it would have been better …to have discussed all aspects of non-proliferation ‘behind locked doors’ before any intention of signing the treaty had become public.”

  • March 15, 1967

    Memorandum by the Euratom Commission on the Visit of Lord Chalfont on 9 March 1967

    Lord Chalfont described the international agreement on non-dissemination of nuclear weapons as a new phase in negotiations on disarmament.

  • March 18, 1967

    South African Department of Foreign Affairs, 'Nuclear Proliferation Problem'

    Summary of the United States-South Africa Atomic Energy Bilateral. South Africa's sale of source material to France was the subject of some disagreement between the two parties, with the Americans worried that sale of this material would be in violation of the non-proliferation treaty.

  • March 20, 1967

    Research Memorandum REU-16 from George C. Denney, Jr., to the Secretary, 'Swedish Decision to Cut Military Spending Causes Defense Review, Reduces Likelihood of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition'

    The Swedish government rejected Supreme Commander Torsten Rapp’s proposals to fund a nuclear weapons program. This INR report from March 1967 on proposed cuts in defense spending suggested that the possibility that Sweden would acquire nuclear weapons had grown even more remote.

  • March 21, 1967

    US Department of State Airgram CA-6579 to US Embassy Moscow, 'Kosygin's Remarks on Non-Proliferation in London'

    In this Airgram, the U.S. embassy in Bonn sent a translation of Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin's tough statement on the NPT at a press conference in London. Kosygin stated (of West Germany) "whether she wants this or not, such a document should be signed, because we will not allow the Federal Republic of Germany to possess nuclear weapons."