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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February, 1989

    Memorandum to Alexander Yakovlev from the Bogomolov Commission (Marina Sylvanskaya)

    Memorandum to Alexander Yakovlev from the Bogomolov Commission (Marina Sylvanskaya) describing the changes in individual Eastern European countries and their impact on the Soviet Union

  • February 03, 1989

    Report of the Soviet Ambassador Y. M. Vorontsov, concerning the current political situation inside Afghanistan and the possibilities of solving the Afghan question

    This document discusses the disagreements among Afghan leaders regarding a coalition government. The Soviet invasion, withdrawal, and the prospects for peace with Afghanistan are also revealed.

  • February 23, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Conviction of Havel Isolates Regime

    An analysis of the conviction of Vaclav Havel, including its political and diplomatic implications.

  • March 24, 1989

    Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and Karoly Grosz, General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, March 23-24, 1989

    These conversations reveal Gorbachev’s contradictions, as the Soviet leader proclaims again that the Brezhnev doctrine is dead and military interventions should be "precluded in the future, yet at the same time, tries to set "boundaries" for the changes in Eastern Europe as "the safekeeping of socialism and assurance of stability."

  • April 01, 1989

    Report of Vadim Zagladin on his conversation with Chairman of the Czechoslovak Association for U.N., Deputy Chairman of the Committee for European Security, Jan Pudlak

    Vadim Zagladin's report of his conversation with Jan Pudlak about Czechoslovakia's political opposition and strife within the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

  • May 06, 1989

    Memorandum of Vadim Zagladin to Gorbachev

    Memorandum from Zagladin to Gorbachev on Zagladin's recent trip to Czechoslovakia, in preparation for Gorbachev's upcoming trip there.

  • May 29, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 443 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Ambassador Eduard Saul recommends that Czechoslovakia more actively support the Chinese Communist Party.

  • May 30, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 517 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports on the movements of demonstrators at Tiananmen Square as well as the latest statements by the CCP leadership.

  • June 01, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 629 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports that Zhao Ziyang has been effectively removed from office.

  • June 01, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 626 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    The Czechoslovak Ambassador in Beijing reports on the latest meetings with Chinese officials and the activities of demonstrators at Tiananmen Square.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 725 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul describes the economic situation in China in the context of the Tiananmen Square protest movement.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 727 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul indicates that the Chinese military will be called upon to clear Tiananmen Square.

  • June 02, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 724 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul describes divisions amongst the demonstrators at Tiananmen Square.

  • June 05, 1989

    Telegram No. 048 821 from the Czechoslovak Embassy, Beijing

    Saul reports on the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square crackdown.

  • June 08, 1989

    Assessment Paper by the Austrian Foreign Ministry, '[Excerpt] Eastern Europe; Current Assessment'

    The paper addresses the change in economics, politics, and social structures in the Soviet bloc (Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the GDR) as a result of the USSR loosening up regulations.

  • July 03, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Threatening Antidissident Campaign

    An analysis of Prague's efforts to crush dissent amidst the Party's growing unpopularity.

  • July 13, 1989

    Hungary: Tension with Orthodox Neighbors Growing

    An analysis of the political climate between Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia.

  • July 25, 1989

    Czechoslovakia: Polish Solidarity Increases Its Support to Opponents of Czechoslovak Regime

    An analysis of Solidarity's increased support to Czechoslovakia's opposition.

  • July 25, 1989

    Special Analysis: Czechoslovakia: Teetering between Old and New

    An analysis of the future of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia.

  • July 25, 1989

    Report of the President of Hungary Rezso Nyers and General Secretary Karoly Grosz on Talks with Gorbachev in Moscow (excerpts)

    President of People’s Republic of Hungary, Rezso Nyers, and General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, Karoly Grosz, report on their talks with Gorbachev in Moscow, 24-25 July, 1989. The excerpts contains economic reformer Nyers’ assessment of the political situation in Hungary, and first among the factors that "can defeat the party," he lists "the past, if we let ourselves [be] smeared with it." The memory of the revolution of 1956 and its bloody repression by the Soviets was Banquo’s ghost, destroying the legitimacy of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, just as 1968 in Prague and 1981’s martial law in Poland and all the other Communist "blank spots" of history came back in 1989 to crumble Communist ideology. For their part, the Communist reformers (including Gorbachev) did not quite know how to respond as events accelerated in 1989, except not to repeat 1956.