August 24, 1960
Memorandum of Conversation, 'Nuclear Sharing'
Secretary of Defense Gates, Acting-Secretary of State Dillon and the Atomic Energy Commissions' McCone discuss nuclear sharing with France. The French had offered full cooperation and participation in NATO in return for US Polaris submarine-launched missiles (without warhead).
June 28, 1963
Report by Permanent Representative to NATO Alessandrini to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni
In this report to Foreign Minister Piccioni, Alessandrini addresses the key problems with NATO, focusing on the lack of internal cohesion . He names the German problem as the most important issue of the alliance, but touches also on De Gaulle's politics and European integration.
July 09, 1963
Report by Ambassador Quaroni to Minister of Foreign Affairs Piccioni, 'General De Martino's candidacy and Standing Group'
Italian Ambassador to London, Quaroni, analyzes the internal situation of NATO, and Italy's standing that he considers very weak. He describes the situation as "total Cold War" between US and France, where Kennedy and De Gaulle have different visions for the future.
December 01, 1965
Report, 'Use of nuclear weapons'
The document is a detailed analysis about the possible use of NATO's nuclear weapons, in preparation for the Atlantic Council's December session. The French participation in the Council and the French opposition to any nuclear integration will probably leave this issue without a solution. From their point of view, the US and the Select Committee recently proposed by them should try to overcome the hindrance represented by France, at the same time without jeopardizing the cohesion of the Alliance.
February 24, 1970
Memorandum of Conversation, Nixon and Pompidou
Minutes of a conversation between President Nixon and President Pompidou during the latter's visit to the United States. Nixon states that he wants there to be good relations between the U.S. and France because, despite differences in approach, both countries share the same goals. The two countries were allies and should find common grounds for cooperation even though France wanted to maintain its independence from NATO. Pompidou points out differences with the U.S. in terms of military and nuclear capabilities, and Nixon recognizes the highly secretive nature of such talks which might lead to a better military cooperation between both countries. Next, they discussed how the Soviet Union presented problems for both countries, and that the Soviets must not be allowed to gain an advantage because of any agreements between France and the U.S. It concludes with an overview of the state of affairs with China, the U.S., and an independent France in a world that is progressing forward at a rapid pace since the end of the last war.
August 03, 1970
Memorandum from Helmut Sonnenfeldt to Henry Kissinger, 'Franco-American Military Relations'
Sonnenfeldt summarizes various recent types of military cooperation between the United States and France. These include cooperation on contingency plans for dealing with Germany and US nuclear assistance to France. He suggests that it is time to define the "political philosophy underlying these disparate measures of cooperation."
July 01, 1972
Briefing Book, 'Meeting of Dr. Kissinger and French Minister of State for National Defense'
The Briefing Book provides guidance for Kissinger's meeting with French Minister of Defense Michel Debré in July 1972. Background and talking points are given for various topics, including US-French ballistic missile cooperation, nuclear safety exchanges, and French military coordination with NATO. The section on ballistic missile assistance gives a list of the specific technical problems France has consulted on to date.
July 06, 1972
Memorandum from Helmut Sonnenfeldt to Henry A. Kissinger, 'Your Meeting with Debré: Additional Points'
Sonnenfeldt briefs Kissinger on additional points for his meeting with French Minister of Defense Michel Debré in July 1972. There is new information about specific technical requests Debré may make for ballistic missile assistance as well as new information about Debré's views on nuclear strategy and cooperation with US and NATO forces.
October 15, 1972
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Note, 'French military nuclear policy and its consequences for the European unification'
The note suggests that French motives for developing nuclear capabilities are political rather than based on national security considerations. France seeks to insure a key role in global political and military balance, and its behavior creates unfavorable conditions for the development of common European defense.
September 10, 1994
Cable, U.S. Embassy Office Berlin to the Secretary of State, 'Chancellor Kohl: NATO and EU Enlargement: The Future of Europe'
Richard Holbrooke recounts a final meeting with with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl prior to leaving Germany. Kohl asked the Clinton Administration "to increase its involvement in the ongoing effort to chart the future of Europe," and called for the expansion of NATO and the EU.