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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September, 1944

    Memorandum by George Kennan , 'Russia – Seven Years Later' (excerpt)

    George Kennan describes Stalin's character, underlining the importance of his nationality, ignorance of the west, and his seclusion. Kennan further warns that Stalin's advisors are not interested in collaborating with western democracies, and that Russia's internal police regime is developed beyond its foreign policy.

  • February 09, 1946

    Speech Delivered by Stalin at a Meeting of Voters of the Stalin Electoral District, Moscow

    English translation of Stalin's 1946 "election" speech.

  • February 22, 1946

    George Kennan's 'Long Telegram'

    Ambassador George F. Kennan writes to the Secretary of State with a lengthy analysis of Soviet policy in an attempt to explain their recent uncooperative behavior. This message would later become famous as the "long telegram."

  • March 05, 1946

    Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" Speech, "Sinews of Peace"

    Text of speech given by Churchill at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri in which he first used the phrase "iron curtain."

  • June 24, 1953

    Report from Vasilii Sokolovskii, Vladimir Semyonov, and Pavel Yudin, 'On the Events of 17-19 June 1953 in Berlin and the GDR and Certain Conclusions from these Events'

    The authors accuse "fascist and other organizations, working primarily under the leadership of American intelligence," to be responsible for the uprisings in Berlin and other GDR cities. The authors stated that "Adenauer intended to exploit this disenchantment to strengthen his position before the upcoming Bundestag elections in August-September of this year." The CC SED is accused having not paid attention to short-lived strikes in early June. According to the authors "the events in Berlin on 16-19 June were completely unexpected to the leadership of GDR". Finally the authors drew a few conclusions and gave some recommendations "in order to correct the situation in the GDR."

  • 1955

    Untitled report on a visit to the Communist Bloc

    Extensive account of Cheab's visit to Budapest, Kiev, Moscow, Leningrad, Georgia, Bucharest, Sofia, and Plovdiv.

  • February 08, 1955

    [Uncorrected] Transcript of a Meeting of the Party group of the USSR Supreme Soviet on 8 February 1955

    Khrushchev reads the decision of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU that states that Georgy Malenkov does not have the knowledge or experience to fulfill the post of Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. The decision lists political mistakes that Malenkov has made, including his close relationship to Lavrenti Beria. Khrushchev upholds this decision, citing examples of Malenkov's political and ideological weakness: his support for abandoning socialism in East Germany in favor of a unified, neutral Germany and his emphasis of light industry over heavy industry, among others. Malenkov speaks, accepting responsibility for his mistakes and agreeing with the CC Plenum decision. Khrushchev then nominates N. A. Bulganin to replace Malenkov as Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and G. K. Zhukov to replace Bulganin as Minister of Defense; both nominations are accepted. Malenkov is given the posts of Minister of Electric Power Stations and Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers.

  • February 25, 1956

    Khrushchev's Secret Speech, 'On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences,' Delivered at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    In a secret speech before a closed plenum of the 20th Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s cult of the personality. In addition, he revealed that Stalin had rounded up thousands of people and sent them into a huge system of political work camps (Gulags). This revelation was met with astonishment by many present for the speech, but helped to break the power that Stalin still held over the country.

  • January 05, 1959

    Moscow Dispatch No. 375, Some Considerations Regarding US Policy Toward the USSR

    Foreign Service Officer David Mark, reporting in Moscow Dispatch No. 375, suggests changes in US policy to embrace reduction of “pressure-generating activities” on Eastern Europe, including Radio Free Europe (RFE). Ambassador Llwellyn E. Thompson dissents but suggests that RFE broadcasts might be halted in exchange for an end to Soviet jamming [of Voice of America and other Western broadcasts].

  • February 02, 1959

    Comments on US Policy Towards the USSR and Radio Free Europe

    Richard Bissell forwards to Allen Dulles comments of Cord Meyer on Moscow Dispatch No. 375. Dulles’ handwritten comment registers agreement with Meyer and Ambassador Thompson.

  • August 08, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 8 August 1960

    Karoly Prath and Puzanov discuss North Korea's new restrictions on foreign embassies, while Kim Il Sung and Puzanov latter talk about events celebrating the 15th anniversary of the liberation of Korea.

  • September 19, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 19 September 1960

    Nam Il shows his gratitude on the DPRK construction delegation member's stay in the Soviet Union and informs KWP CC position in the conference of the ministers of railways of the socialist countries.

  • September 27, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 27 September 1960

    A KWP delegation is going to Moscow to participate in the conference of the ministers of railways of the socialist countries. Beshchev thinks it strange that the ministers of railways of the socialist countries were received by Kim Il, not by Kim Il Sung. Pak Seong-cheol asks for the tentative schedule of N.S. Khrushchev's visit to the DPRK.

  • September 28, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 28 September 1960

    Puzanov suggests measures to implement during the first five-year plan to further North Korea's economic growth. Puzanov also informs Pak Seong-cheol of a change to Khrushchev's scheduled visit to the DPRK.

  • September 30, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 30 September 1960

    A.M. Puzanov provides Pak Geum Cheol information on 1) upcoming conference of representatives of Communist and worker's Parties 2) State Committee decision to transfer technical documentations in response to Kim Il Sung's request 3) impression on newly-introduced bonus payment system in agricultural cooperatives.

  • October 01, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador to the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 1 October 1960

    Kim Il Sung shows his gratitude for Khrushchev's speech at the 15th UN General Assembly and explains a new decree to increase distribution to agricultural cooperative members.

  • October 06, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 6 October 1960

    Stanislav Kohousek compliments Khrushchev's speech at the 15th UN General Assembly session. He also reports on a request from DPRK government to Czechoslovakia for extending its credits.

  • October 08, 1960

    Journal of Soviet Ambassador in the DPRK A.M. Puzanov for 8 October 1960

    Petro Gedeshi and Kurt Schneidewind argue about the Soviet decision to recall specialists from the China. Kim Il Sung understands the delay of Khrushchev's visit to the DPRK and suggests that it be rescheduled for spring 1961.

  • January 24, 1962

    Transcription of Speech by Yugoslav General Ivan Gosnjak

    This note describes a conference of important governmental leaders that gathered on Dec. 21, 1961 to hear Gosnjak speak. He spoke about the power of socialism and the importance of a united Soviet bloc against adversity.

  • April 30, 1962

    Minutes of Conversation between Deng Xiaoping and the North Korean Ambassador to China Han Ik-su

    Chairman of China Deng Xiaoping and the DPRK Ambassador to China Han Ik-su exchange views about the relationship between China and North Korea. They reiterate the need to strengthen the unity of socialist camp and the fraternal relationship between China and North Korea. They also agree that the truth about communism is to combine Marxism-Leninism with the actual conditions of one’s own country, not to blindly follow Soviet Union dogma in all circumstances.