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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October 28, 1958

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in the Soviet Union, 'Gromyko Discussed the Issue of Stopping Nuclear Weapons Tests'

    Gromyko informs Liu Xiao of the Soviet position and strategy in its negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom for halting nuclear tests.

  • January 31, 1962

    Research Memorandum REU-25 from Roger Hilsman to Mr. Kohler, 'European Attitudes on Independent Nuclear Capability'

    Concerns about the credibility of US nuclear deterrence generated Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) General Lauris Norstad’s proposal for a NATO-controlled medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) force. This lengthy report represented INR’s assessment of “present and future European interest in national or multinational nuclear weapons capabilities,” including the MRBM proposal, and the extent to which an “enhancement of NATO's nuclear role” could “deter national or multinational European nuclear weapons programs.”

  • June 05, 1963

    Research Memorandum REU-44 from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary, 'Evidence of Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction in European NATO Countries with the Lack of a Share in Ownership or Control of Nuclear Weapons'

    Ambassador Livingston Merchant, who was responsible for the U.S. diplomatic effort to win support for the MLF, asked INR to report on the degree to which non-nuclear European members of NATO were satisfied with their “lack of a share in ownership or control of nuclear weapons.” Based on the evidence, mainly various statements made by leading politicians, diplomats, and policymakers, INR experts concluded that most of the countries surveyed (Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Greece) were “relatively satisfied,” while only West Germany was “restive” to the extent that some of its officials were interested in a NATO or European nuclear force.

  • June 13, 1963

    Annex to analysis by SMD on Proposal to assign to NATO Italian Polaris-armed Ships

    Report by Gen. A. Rossi on Polaris SLBM and NATO naval forces, including technological and employment features, costs. The report includes discussions of IRBM forces in Italy, and French and British nuclear forces.

  • July 26, 1974

    Rajya Sabha Q&A on Underground Nuclear Tests by the UK and the United States

    Transcript of questions and answers between members of the Rajya Sabha and the Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri Surendra Pal Singh, on the government's reaction to the recent underground tests conducted by the U.K. and U.S.A. in Nevada.

  • May 17, 1983

    MAE DAP Memo on INF

    MAE DAP memo on resumption of negotiations on INF. Observations on Allied negotiating position regarding an intermediate solution. Discussion of the Soviet position (press conference by Foreign Minister Gromyko, statements by Secretary-General PCUS Andropov): The paper also discusses the issue of French and British national nuclear deterrents, deployment of Euro-missiles and Soviet SS-20, comments Allied countries and perspectives on the negotiations.

  • 1985

    Nuclear Power, Nuclear Weapons: The Deadly Connection

    Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament pamphlet arguing that nuclear power and weapons are inseparable and this inseparability leads to the constant violation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, which must be severely strengthened to avoid nuclear war.