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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September, 1944

    Memorandum by George Kennan , 'Russia – Seven Years Later' (excerpt)

    George Kennan describes Stalin's character, underlining the importance of his nationality, ignorance of the west, and his seclusion. Kennan further warns that Stalin's advisors are not interested in collaborating with western democracies, and that Russia's internal police regime is developed beyond its foreign policy.

  • October 09, 1944

    Record of Meeting at the Kremlin, Moscow, 9 October 1944, at 10 p.m.

    Churchill, Eden, Stalin, and Molotov discuss the leadership in Poland, Britains interests in Greece and Hong Kong, the actions of Romania and Bulgaria during the war, Turkey, the need for the Great Powers to exert influence on the Balkans to prevent small wars, the leadership of Italy, interests in Bulgaria and Romania, the dividing of Germany and Germany's future, and the American plans in the war against Japan.

  • October 13, 1944

    Record of Meeting Held at Spiridonovka House on 13 October at 5 p.m.

    M. Mikolajczyk discusses the Polish memorandum regarding the reconstruction and internal affairs of post-war Poland, Stalin reprimands Mikolajczyk for the extralegal approval of this memorandum. Churchill defends the memorandum, Stalin criticizes it, and Mikolajczyk emphasizes Poland's sovereignty as well as the legitimacy of the underground government in occupied Poland. Contentious discussion on the issue of the Curzon Line between Stalin and Mikolajczyk--Churchill acts as a mediator.

  • January 28, 1945

    Notes of V. Kolarov from a Meeting with Stalin

    Stalin opposes Turkey's inclusion in any Balkan federation, suggests that Bulgaria and Yugoslavia's confederation should be postponed and that Bulgaria should assert its rights to the Aegean. He says that the Soviet Union has only allied with capitalist nations to defeat the most dangerous of them, Germany; says that capitalism has decayed and the conditions for socialism are good. Promises Russia's assistance in developing Bulgaria's industry.

  • August 08, 1945

    Memorandum of Conversation between W. A. Harriman and Stalin

    American ambassador W.A. Harriman and Joseph Stalin discuss the right of use for Russian built railroads in Chinese Manchuria, as well as the status of the ports of Darien and Port Arthur.

  • August 10, 1945

    Record of a Meeting Between T.V. Soong and Stalin

    T.V. Soong, Stalin, and others discuss the status of the war with Japan, the borders of Inner and Outer Mongolia, and the right of Soviet use of Manchurian railroads.

  • February 09, 1946

    Speech Delivered by Stalin at a Meeting of Voters of the Stalin Electoral District, Moscow

    English translation of Stalin's 1946 "election" speech.

  • February 22, 1946

    George Kennan's 'Long Telegram'

    Ambassador George F. Kennan writes to the Secretary of State with a lengthy analysis of Soviet policy in an attempt to explain their recent uncooperative behavior. This message would later become famous as the "long telegram."

  • March 05, 1946

    Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" Speech, "Sinews of Peace"

    Text of speech given by Churchill at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri in which he first used the phrase "iron curtain."

  • April 05, 1946

    Cable from B. Smith to Secretary of State

    Ambassador Smith and Stalin discuss relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, both expressing their desire to avoid a deterioration of relations in the post-war time frame.

  • September 17, 1946

    Answers to the Questions Posed by A. Werth, Moscow Correspondent for the Sunday Times

    In an interview for the Sunday Times, Stalin discusses his thoughts on foreign policy developments around the world.

  • December 21, 1946

    Interview Transcript of Stalin's Interview With Elliot Roosevelt

    Roosevelt conducts an interview with Stalin and discusses US-Soviet relations and problems facing the post-war world.

  • April 09, 1947

    Interview with Mr. Stassen and Stalin

    Stassen, in his interview with Stalin, discusses ideological differences between the USSR and the US, as well as prospects for cooperation between the two countries.

  • June 14, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Report, "Effects of Soviet Restrictions on the US Position in Berlin"

    Describes effect of Soviet restrictive measures in Berlin on US intelligence and propaganda activities and on operations of the joint military government.

  • September 28, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Report, "Consequences of a Breakdown in Four-Power Negotiations on Germany"

    Summarizes Soviet objectives and strategies in entering into Four-Power discussions about Berlin and Germany.

  • December 10, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Memorandum for the President on the Situation in Berlin

    CIA Memorandum for President Truman on US position on Soviet actions in Berlin.

  • April 14, 1950

    National Security Council Report, NSC 68, 'United States Objectives and Programs for National Security'

    On US national security policy at the beginning of the Cold War. Includes an assessment of the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as US and Soviet nuclear weapons capabilities.

  • October 09, 1952

    Record of S. Radhakrishnan’s Meeting with the FRG President

    Radhakrishnan discusses German unification with the President of West Germany, touches on India's independent stances on foreign policy issues in China, Japan, and Korea, and speaks at length about Russia's internal policies. Radhakrishnan summarizes a previous discussion with Stalin, in detail, discussing Soviet approaches to religion (compared with Indian approaches), and Stalin's strong denial of accusations of aggression: Radhakrishnan says that he is "convinced that Stalin and Russia are gripped by sincere fears of a Western attack." Radhakrisnan concludes by expressing his hope that Germany can unify.

  • May 24, 1953

    Sample Plan for the Draft Response to the Notes of the Three Powers

    Unhappy with the call for a conference in Lugano, this plan outlines several points that should be taken into consideration when drafting the official response including the Soviet awareness that any lack of results from this conference would result in blame being placed on the Soviet state and the dismissal of questions raised by the Soviet government in prior correspondence. The Soviets conclude that they should arrange the program of the conference in order to maximize the conferences effectiveness in resolving lingering post-war problems.

  • December 31, 1959

    Memorandum of Conversation with the Deputy Chairmen of the People’s Committee of the City of Shanghai, and the CPC City Committee Candidate, Liu Shuzhou, 16 December 1959

    Liu Shuzou, the CPC City Committee Candidate, describes the Shanghai delegation’s recent one-week educational visit to Leningrad. According to Liu, the delegation was received well by the Leningraders, and the Chinese were impressed by the city, Soviet culture, education, and a general improvement in standard of living