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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March 08, 1962

    Summary of Conversation between Premier Zhou Enlai and Pakistan’s Ambassador to the PRC, Rashidi (Excerpt)

    Zhou Enlai and Ali Muhammad Rashidi discuss the disputes between Pakistan and India and Afghanistan, and China's positions in those conflicts.

  • September 05, 1978

    'Ambassador’s Talk with General Zia,' Embassy Islamabad cable to State Department

    Ambassador Hummel describes a conversation with General Zia. They discussed the cancellation of the French reprocessing project, disputes over the Pakistani-Afghan border, and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTRO).

  • March 28, 1979

    Soviet Communication to the Hungarian Leadership on the Situation in Afghanistan

    This document discusses the strained political situation in Afghanistan in terms of counter-revolutionaries attempting to overthrow the government. Such revolutions in part came from reactionary Muslim regions, some of which are replete with Shiites who may have been influence by the Chinese government.

  • January 31, 1980

    Secretary of Defense Harold Brown to Ambassador-at-Large Gerard C. Smith, enclosing excerpts from memoranda of conversations with Geng Biao and Deng Xiaoping.

    The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 had an immediate impact on U.S. policy toward Pakistan and U.S. aid to the anti-Soviet resistance through Islamabad. With these considerations, the U.S. chose to “set [the nuclear issue] aside for the time being.”

  • May 19, 1982

    Memorandum of Conversations between SED General Secretary Erich Honecker and Afghan Leader Babrak Karmal

    Karmal describes threats against the Soviet-backed Afghan government from Pakistan, Iran, the US, China, and Egypt.

  • July 02, 1987

    Record of Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and Prime Minister R. Gandhi

    Gorbachev and Rajiv Gandhi meet to discuss various issues. Begin by noting the effect of Western radio propaganda within both India and Soviet Union. Gorbachev notes the "voices" of Western radio stations broadcasting in the Soviet Union, aiming to undermine perestroika. After touching on economic initiatives in India, Gandhi singles out, among problems in India, the "weakening of public morals." Blames this problem on the "onslaught of the Western--and first and foremost, American-- mass media." Both sides criticize militarism at base of US foreign policy, and US emphasis on rolling back communism. Conversation concludes with analysis of Afghanistan situation; Gorbachev explains measure USSR is taking to solidify Afghan government, and Gandhi recommends caution when dealing with tribal factor in Afghanistan. Both sides speak on Pakistan's reaction to situation.