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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March 20, 1965

    Minutes of Conversation between Cuban Defense Minister Raúl Castro and Polish Leader Władysław Gomułka, Warsaw, 20 March 1965

    During his visit in Poland, Castro relates Cuba's position on a conversation taken place in Moscow and why it may be of interest to the Cubans. Gomulka raises the issue of the missiles. In Gomulka's opinion two factors were decisive: contradictions which arose within the socialist camp and the policy which was conducted by Khrushchev. Gomulka is assured that US is capable of conducting a war with Cuba by way of conventional weapons, it does not have to use nuclear weapons. It is clear that the socialist camp and the USSR cannot defend Cuba in any other way but by using nuclear weapons. If a conflict is meant to be, then it will be a nuclear conflict, there is no other way. Gomulka further raises a question whether to go into a nuclear war or not. Castro disagrees with a manner nuclear weapons were withdrawn from Cuba by Soviets. Khruchshev explained that he did not have time. Per Gomulka, Khrushchev conducted a policy which was not thought-out and which was all-out. Gomulka further discusses his talks with Chinese and Vietnamese comrades re: nuclear weapons issue.

  • January 25, 1968

    Report, Hungarian Embassy in Cuba to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry, 25 January 1968

    A report on the great friendship between North Korea and Cuba.

  • 1982

    Excerpts from ''Ordnance: Chronology of Historical Events, Volume 2''

    Excerpts from an internal Vietnamese army history which describes the shipment of weapons internationally, likely to aid revolutionaries in Latin America. Also describes a visit by the military attaché of the Cuban embassy in Vietnam to the weapons warehouse.

  • 1992

    Excerpts from official Vietnamese "Sapper Handbook"

    Translated excerpts from an official People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) handbook for the elite "Sapper" forces, Vietnamese army’s commando/special forces troops. These excerpts discuss the Sapper's training of foreign commando forces from countries such as Laos, Cambodia, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.

  • 1997

    Excerpts from "Calendar of Events in the History of the Sapper Branch of the People's Army of Vietnam (1967-1997)"

    Translated excerpts from an official People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) publication which gives a timeline of events of the "Sapper Branch," the Vietnamese army’s commando/special forces troops. These excerpts discuss the Sapper's training of foreign commando forces from Cuba, El Salvador and the Soviet Union.