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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • September 06, 1947

    Notes of the Discussion of Comrade A.A. Zhdanov with Comrade S.A. Dange, Member of the CC of the Communist Party of India

    Andrei Zhdanov instructs Shripad Amrit Dange on the Soviet Union's suggestions for the formation of an Indian Communist Party, following India's 1947 Partition.

  • January 20, 1951

    Report from P. F. Yudin to I. V. Stalin on Meetings with the Leaders of the Communist Party of China, including Mao Zedong on 31 December 1950

    Yudin recounts his meetings with Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, and Zhou Enlai. In three meetings, Yudin learned more about China's relations with other communist parties in Asia, economic conditions in China, and developments in the Korean War.

  • February 04, 1951

    Meeting of Top CPI and CPSU Comrades

    Delegation representing the Indian Communist Party, including Rao, Ghosh, and Dange, discusses the internal disagreements within the ICP following the party's Second Congress, stemming largely over the question of armed struggle. Also touches on how the ICP should react to foreign policy issues, including US involvement in the Korean War.

  • February 09, 1951

    Record of a Conversation between Stalin and representatives of the Indian Communist Party

    Meeting in Moscow between Stalin and Indian Communist Party representatives C. Rajeswara Rao, S. A. Dange, A. K. Ghosh, and [M. Basava] Punnaiah. Stalin responded to a series of prepared questions from the representatives.

  • February 21, 1951

    Record of Conversations between G.M. Malenkov and M.A. Suslov with the Representatives of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of India

    G.M. Malenkov speaks with representatives of the Indian Communist Party, including Dange, Ghosh, and Rao. The ICP delegation asks for Soviet advice on party organization and composition. Malenkov responds, warning the ICP to take care not to come off as a Soviet puppet. Malenkov's main suggestion is to determine a firm party line, and publish a singular and clear program for the party, so as to unite disputing factions.

  • April 05, 1952

    Record of the Conversation of I.V. Stalin and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

    Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Stalin discuss India's internal politics and stance on foreign policy. Radhakrishnan tells Stalin of India's recent elections and emphasizes that India shares the Soviet Union's stance against capitalism. Radhakrishna also puts forth the question of peaceful co-existence between capitalist and communist spheres, and the possibility for a neutral commission to replace the Cominform and UN. Stalin expresses doubt.

  • January 11, 1956

    Information on Khrushchev and Bulganin’s November-December 1955 trip to India, Burma, and Afghanistan, from the Central Committee of the CPSU to the Central Committee of the SED

    Report on Khrushchev and Bulganin's trip to India, Burma, and Afghanistan, summarizing issues discussed in each country. In India, Nehru tells Khrushchev and Bulganin that India shares USSR attitude on a number of questions on foreign policy, including German re-unification and the question of military blocs. Nehru also criticizes influence of Cominform on Communist Party of India, and calls 1951 ICP visit to Moscow "illegal." In Burma, the delegation primarily touches on trade questions. In Afghanistan, Khrushchev and Bulganin discuss foreign policy issues, along with economic support from the Soviet Union for Afghanistan. Afghanistan commits to remaining neutral, and not joining the Baghdad Pact.

  • September 04, 1961

    Telegram from Chinese Embassy in India to Foreign Ministry, 'Kakodkar's Situation'

    The embassy advises against inviting the Goan People's Party general secretary to visit China before the Indian election.

  • September 16, 1961

    Telegram from Chinese Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Morocco, 'Currently Inadvisable to Invite Kakodkar to Visit China'

    The Foreign Ministry advises against inviting the general secretary of the Goan People's Party to China for the time being.

  • December 23, 1961

    Cable, Chinese Foreign Ministry to Embassy in Morocco, 'Generally Express Support for the Struggle against Portugal with Braganca '

    The Foreign Ministry orders the embassy to refrain from initiating contact with a representative of the Goan People's Party as it could cause diplomatic problems with India for China to be in direct contact with the Goan liberation movement.

  • January 17, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet Ambassador to India I.A. Benediktov

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. During the conversation, Gupta urgently requests Soviet financial aid for the Indian party for use in an upcoming election campaign; the answer conveyed by Benediktov ten days later suggests that the Soviets responded positively to the request, although the amount is not indicated.

  • January 27, 1962

    Entry from the journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, conversation with the Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with Secretary of the National Council of the Communist Party of India, Bhupesh Gupta. Benediktov met with Gupta again on 27 January 1962 (as the Soviet envoy recorded in his diary four days later).

  • October 26, 1962

    Entry from the Journal of Soviet ambassador to India Benediktov, Conversation with General Secretary of the Communist Party of India, E.M. Nambudiripad

    Journal entry by Benediktov describing a conversation with General Secretary of the Communist Party of India, E.M. Nambudiripad. The encounter took place a day after the Soviet leadership had dramatically modified its policy on the Sino-Indian dispute (in an October 25 article in Pravda), suddenly taking a pro-China position, evidently due to the danger of global war breaking out as a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis, then peaking. While taking pains to welcome the Pravda article as helpful in correcting misunderstandings among Indian Communists, the CPI leader acknowledged that the party secretariat had concluded that "this publication in all probability will inaugurate a new period of anti-Soviet hysteria in India," pushing the Indian Government toward the West, and he pleaded with the Soviets to influence China to resolve the border dispute "without damage to the prestige of India and of Nehru himself."

  • October 22, 1964

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India, 'India's Reactions to Khrushchev's Removal and China's Nuclear Test'

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in India describing mixed responses of Indians on Khrushchev's removal and China's nuclear test.

  • December 22, 1980

    Information about Results of the Visit by L. I. Brezhnev in India (8 to 11 December 1980)

    Description of Brezhnev visit to India (1980 December), and summary of his discussions with Indira Gandhi and the Communist Party of India (ICP). With Gandhi, Brezhnev discusses a wide range of international issues, including increased US military presence in the Indian Ocean, the Iran-Iraq conflict, and Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Gandhi both expresses sympathy for Soviet situation in Afghanistan but also calls for withdrawal of troops. Both sides criticize Pakistan for taking action to destabilize region, and both sides criticize China for policy on sub-continent; Soviets accuse china of "direct support for imperialist policy."

  • September 28, 1983

    Hungarian Embassy in India, Ciphered Telegram, 28 September 1983. Subject: Indian views about the Korean Workers’ Party.

    Indian-North Korean relations are the subject of this telegram, with attention paid to the Indian Communist Party's views on the North Korean Worker's Party. The cult of personality, autarkic economic policy and Juche ideology provide many points of misgiving from the point of view of the Indians.