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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • October, 1979

    Interagency Intelligence Memorandum, US Director of Central Intelligence, NI-IIM 79-100213, 'Iraq’s Nuclear Interests, Programs, and Options'

    This report found “no hard evidence” that Iraq was intent on a nuclear weapons capability. Nevertheless, considering the scope of Iraq’s “ambitious” nuclear program, intelligence analysts concluded that the Baath regime was covertly seeking a weapons capability to support its pursuit of regional hegemony and to match the perceived Israeli nuclear threat.

  • February, 1980

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Special Project Division, 'Proliferation Analysis and International Assessments'

    This issue of Proliferation Analysis and International Assessments includes a heavily excised article on Iraq, a piece on South Africa’s security prospects, and a apparently a third essay that has been wholly exempted. The essay on South Africa’s nuclear aims suggests that the arguments pro and con for a nuclear capability to deal with regional security threats are so powerful that “internal political and bureaucratic” consideration are probably more relevant for nuclear decisions.

  • April 09, 1981

    Special Assistant for NPI, NFAC, CIA, to Resource Management Staff, Office of Program Assessment et al, 'Request for Review of Draft Paper on the Security Dimension of Non-Proliferation'

    Just a few months into President Reagan’s first term his administration wanted to make its own mark on nonproliferation policy. The report suggests building “broader bilateral relationship[s]” and offering political and security incentives could persuade states considering developing nuclear weapons to cease these efforts.

  • June 10, 1981

    Letter from Israeli General Rafael Eitan to South African Minister Magnus Malan on Israeli Airstrike on Iraqi Nuclear Reactor

    Chief of Staff of Israel Defense Forces, General Rafael Eitan writes to South African Minister of Defence Magnus Malan shortly after Israel’s 1981 strike on Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor. In this candid letter, Eitan states that Israel’s “iron determination” would not “allow these crazy Arabs to possess nuclear weapons," adding that "anyone who tries to say that the nuclear reactor in Iraq was only for research purposes is wicked, cynical and oil, not human blood, flows in his veins."

  • June 15, 1981

    Report of the Hungarian Embassy in Egypt on the evaluation of the Israeli bombing of the Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq in 1981

    This report by the Hungarian Embassy in Egypt describes the Egyptian government's surprise at the Israeli bombing of the Osirak nuclear site in Iraq in 1981 and concludes that peace in the region must come through international cooperation and conferences.

  • October, 1981

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Senior Advisors Following the Israeli Attack on Osirak

    Saddam Hussein discusses the Israeli air strike against the Iraqi reactor at Osirak, explaining why the attack was expected and his reasons for pursuing nuclear weapons development.

  • July, 1982

    National Intelligence Estimate, NIE-4-82, 'Nuclear Proliferation Trends Through 1987'

    With proliferation becoming a “greater threat to US interests over the next five years,” intelligence analysts believed that the “disruptive aspect of the proliferation phenomenon will constitute the greater threat to the United States.” While the estimators saw “low potential” for terrorist acquisition of nuclear weapons, the likelihood of terrorist/extortionist hoaxes was on the upswing. Significant portions of the NIE are excised, especially the estimate of Israel’s nuclear arsenal and its impact in the Middle East. Nevertheless, much information remains on the countries of greatest concern: Iraq and Libya in the Near East, India and Pakistan in South Asia, Brazil and Argentina in Latin America, and the Republic of South Africa, as well as those of lesser concern: Iran, Egypt, Taiwan and the two Koreas.

  • January 22, 1987

    Iraqi Military Manual on the Tactical Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Vol. 2 Part 2

    Training manual for the Iraqi armed forces describes tactical uses of nuclear weapons during war. The foreword explains that "It is not unlikely that the Iraqi Army will participate in a future Arab-Israeli war, in which the enemy will resort to the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction."

  • October 04, 1989

    East German Ministry of State Security, 'Nuclear, Chemical, and Ballistic Missile Potential of Selected Threshold Countries' (excerpt)

    Iraq's WMD capacity as of October 1989 from Stasi Perspective

  • October 06, 1990

    Correspondence between the MIC and the Petro Chemical Group Regarding a Letter from A.Q. Khan Offering Assistance in Developing Iraq’s Nuclear Weapons Program

    Pakistani scientist 'Abd-el-Qadeer Khan offers to help Iraq establish a project to enrich Uranium and manufacture a nuclear weapon.

  • 1991

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors about a United Nations Air Survey Request

    Rolf Ekeus, head of the UN inspection committee on nuclear weapons, requested the United Statesprovide him with an aircraft so he could do an aerial survey of Iraqi lands.

  • April 24, 1991

    John T. Kriese, US Defense Intelligence Agency, 'Talking Points for Briefing to House Energy and Commerce Committee – Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations'

    These talking points, prepared by John T. Kriese who at the time was both chief of the Nuclear Energy Division at DIA and chairman of the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Community, focused on the intelligence the US had available on the Iraqi nuclear program.

  • December 16, 1991

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Officials after the First Gulf War

    Saddam Hussein and Iraqi officials discuss missile development and weapons programs in the wake of loses following the Persian Gulf War. They also discuss United Nations inspections which were currently ongoing.

  • 1993

    Meeting between UN Biological Inspectors and Iraqi Officials Including Dr. Rihab Taha

    Iraqi officials and United Nations inspectors discuss the history of Iraq's biological weapons development.

  • 1994

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Top Political Advisors to Discuss a Visit by Prime Minister Tariq Aziz to the United Nations

    Iraqi Prime Minister Tariq Aziz reports on his visit to the United Nations and progress of UN inspections of Iraq's WMD projects.

  • 1994

    Iraqi Cabinet Meeting with Saddam Hussein and the Atomic Energy Committee

    Saddam and his ministers discuss the reorganization and rebuilding of the Iraqi nuclear program.

  • January 25, 1995

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and Political Advisors Regarding Hostilities with Israel, Iraqi Defense Capabilities, and Iraqi-Syrian Relations

    Saddam and political advisors discuss hostilities with Israel, Iraqi defense capabilities, and Iraqi-Syrian relations. American position as well as the position of many Arab nations are also discussed.

  • February 05, 1995

    Meeting between Saddam Hussein and His Security Council Regarding Iraqi Biological and Nuclear Weapons Program

    Saddam and his Security Council discuss Iraqi biological and nuclear weapons program. Focusing primarily on the biological file, they consider possible interpretations by Ekeus, director of the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq, as well as potential UN reactions.

  • June 19, 1995

    Saddam Hussein Meeting with Ba’ath Party Members to Discuss the Results of the UN Inspectors’ Mission to Look for WMDs

    Saddam, General Amir, and Party members speculate on various motivations behind a UN plan for monitoring the status of WMD's in Iraq. Saddam states that Iraq possesses no biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, but he is informed that a "traitor" had falsely reported to the UN that Iraq was in the possession of a certain number of missiles. They discuss possible UN conclusions and assumptions regarding WMD's in Iraq.

  • October 16, 2000

    Training Documentation Pertaining to Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Threats to the Republican Guard and Iraq

    Training, instructions, procedures, and precautionary measures against threats.