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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • February 22, 1946

    George Kennan's 'Long Telegram'

    Ambassador George F. Kennan writes to the Secretary of State with a lengthy analysis of Soviet policy in an attempt to explain their recent uncooperative behavior. This message would later become famous as the "long telegram."

  • March 12, 1947

    Truman Doctrine, 'Recommendations for Assistance to Greece and Turkey'

    Truman's speech to Congress in which he laid the foundations of the Truman Doctrine by stating that the United States would support Greece and Turkey in order to prevent them from under the sway of the Soviet Union. This speech is often cited as the beginning of the Cold War, and US containment policy.

  • June 05, 1947

    The Marshall Plan, Speech by US Secretary of State George C. Marshall

    Speech in which George C. Marshall lays out the "Marshall Plan" for US aid to assist in the re-building of post-war Europe.

  • April 30, 1948

    George F. Kennan, 'The Inauguration of Organized Political Warfare' [Redacted Version]

    State Department Policy Planning Director George Kennan outlines, in a document for the National Security Council, the idea of a public committee, working closely with the US government, to sponsor various émigré activities

  • April 30, 1948

    George F. Kennan, 'The Inauguration of Organized Political Warfare'

    State Department Policy Planning Director George Kennan outlines, in a document for the National Security Council, the idea of a public committee, working closely with the US government, to sponsor various émigré activities.

  • June 14, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Report, "Effects of Soviet Restrictions on the US Position in Berlin"

    Describes effect of Soviet restrictive measures in Berlin on US intelligence and propaganda activities and on operations of the joint military government.

  • December 10, 1948

    Central Intelligence Agency Memorandum for the President on the Situation in Berlin

    CIA Memorandum for President Truman on US position on Soviet actions in Berlin.

  • March 16, 1949

    National Security Council Report, NSC 8/1, 'The Position of the United States with Respect to Korea'

    Report by the National Security Council to the President on US policy objectives regarding Korea.

  • September 13, 1949

    Memorandum from Frank G. Wisner to [withheld], 'Policy Directive Governing Organization of Russian Refugees in Germany and Austria' [Approved for Release, March 2009]

    George Kennan authorizes Frank Wisner to proceed with a central Russian émigré organization initially focused on émigré welfare and subject to US government policy guidance. Wisner directs Office of Policy Coordination staff in a cover memorandum to proceed with the project.

  • April 14, 1950

    National Security Council Report, NSC 68, 'United States Objectives and Programs for National Security'

    On US national security policy at the beginning of the Cold War. Includes an assessment of the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as US and Soviet nuclear weapons capabilities.

  • May 05, 1950

    Letter to DeWitt C. Poole, National Committee for Free Europe, Inc. [Approved for Release, February 16, 2011]

    The Office of Policy Coordination provides the Free Europe Committee with State Department policy guidance dated April 26, 1950, calling for a range of diplomatic and information initiatives, including use of émigrés, but cautioning that broadcasts “should not promise imminent liberation or encourage active revolt.” The quoted phrase was added to the initial guidance dated April 11 and published in FRUS, 1950, IV, 14-17

  • August 21, 1950

    Office of Policy Coordination and Kennan Discussion of the American Committee for Liberation

    Frank Wisner solicits George Kennan’s suggestions on the organization of AMCOMLIB (cryptonym Cinderella) and the composition of its board of directors.

  • September 09, 1950

    National Security Council Report, NSC 81/1, "United States Courses of Action with Respect to Korea"

    The National Security Council reports to President Truman on possible US courses of action in resposne to the North Korean invasion of South Korea.

  • October 05, 1950

    Letter, Cde. Filippov [Stalin] for Mao Zedong

    Stalin describes the US inability to engage in a "big war" and encourages Kim in his fight against the US. He also discusses the domestic situation in China.

  • October 19, 1950

    Policy Planning Staff View of Exile National Councils

    State Department Policy Planning official Robert Joyce laments to Frank Wisner disarray among the national councils and suggests redoubled efforts to unify them. Check copy and redactions.

  • December 04, 1950

    Memorandum of Conversation Between the Chinese Ambassador to the USSR and Gromyko

    Their discussion involves the idea of a definite Soviet victory in Korea, the failure of US soldiers and President Truman, the internal politics of the US; internal politics of China, the progress of the decision about Germany among the Soviets as well as other Western powers.

  • January 11, 1951

    Radio Free Europe Budget Increase Approved

    Allen Dulles (who has joined CIA as Deputy Director for Plans) informs Frank Wisner that CIA has approved RFE’s capital budget for new transmitters.

  • August 25, 1951

    Radio Liberty Objectives Outlined

    An Office of Policy Coordination officer explains Radio Liberty aims and objectives as involving “Russians speaking to Russians through an organization made up of the peoples of Russia.”

  • March 08, 1952

    Voice of America Views of Radio Liberty Broadcasting

    Voice of America Director Foy Kohler argues that without the formation of a Russian émigré political center enabling “Russians speaking to Russians," Radio Liberty would be a "bad imitation of VOA."

  • March 15, 1952

    CIA, State Department, American Committee for Liberation Discussion of Radio Liberty Broadcasting

    CIA, State Department, and American Committee for Liberation (AMCOMLIB) officials agree to expand AMCOMLIB activities, share funding with Radio Free Europe from the Crusade for Freedom, and delay Radio Liberty broadcasts until a sponsoring Russian Émigré Political Center is formed