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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • December 16, 1944

    Initiative Group formed for the Interim National Congress of Hungary

    Memo from I. Lavrov to V.G. Dekanozov regarding information provided by G.M. Pushkin about the creation of an initiative group for convening the Interim National Congress of Hungary. Pushkin recommends confirming St. Petri Kun Bela as the Chairman of the INC. Pushkin recommends Shanta Gal'man for the post of Deputy Chairman. He also confirms Yuhas Nady as the Second Deputy Chairman.

  • December 22, 1944

    Memorandum Regarding the Creation of the Interim National Government of Hungary

    Memorandum from V.G. Dekanozov to Joseph Stalin discussing the creation of the Interim National Government of Hungary in December of 1944.

  • April 09, 1946

    Translation of Notes Kept by the Hungarian Foreign Minister Rergarding Conversations with Soviet Representatives

    Schoenfeld's notes on a series of conversations held between the Hungarian delegation to Moscow and various Soviet officials. Conversations focused on primarily Hungarian populations abroad.

  • October 24, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘Summary of the Counterrevolutionary Rebellion taking place in the Hungarian Capital’

    The Chinese Embassy in Hungary provides an update on developments in the Hungarian "counterrevolutionary rebellion."

  • October 25, 1956

    Policy Considerations for Radio Free Europe Broadcasts

    A CIA/International Operations Division official recommends policies to guide RFE broadcasting to Hungary during the revolution.

  • October 26, 1956

    Cable from the Chinese Embassy in Hungary, ‘The Situation in the Hungarian capital following the Outbreak of the Counterrevolutionary Rebellion’

    The Chinese Embassy in Budapest reports that the "counterrevolutionary rebellion in the Hungarian capital became increasingly serious after midnight last night"

  • November 02, 1956

    Phone Conversation on Guidance for Radio Free Europe Broadcasts

    Radio Free Europe (RFE) Director Conerey Egan in New York telephones RFE Deputy Director Richard Condon in Munich to direct that RFE should report Hungarian developments and insurgent demands but not take a position for or against individual leaders or political parties.

  • January 10, 1957

    Memorandum from the CIA Librarian to the Chief of the International Organizations Division, 'Personal Comments on RFE Broadcasting to Hungary, 24 October-4 November 1956' [Approved for Release, March 2007]

    A CIA official reviews Hungarian RFE broadcasts.

  • May 22, 1957

    Report of Hungarian Ambassador Sándor Nógrádi to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry About His Conversation With Mao Zedong on the Occasion of Presenting His Credentials

    Mao Zedong and Nógrádi discuss and compare the communist parties in China and Hungary.

  • November 21, 1962

    Telegram from Polish Embassy in Havana (Jeleń), 21 November 1962

    Jelen discusses: Mikoyan's views on Soviet-Cuban differences; Hungary 1956; and the leaders of the Polish Communist Party (KPP).

  • February 23, 1974

    Hungarian Foreign Ministry report on current foreign affairs (excerpt)

    This report by the foreign ministry states that socialist countries should seek to increase their influence among "progressive" Arab countries such as Syria, Iraq, and Algeria, and states that war in Indochina is unlikely.

  • June 08, 1989

    Assessment Paper by the Austrian Foreign Ministry, '[Excerpt] Eastern Europe; Current Assessment'

    The paper addresses the change in economics, politics, and social structures in the Soviet bloc (Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the GDR) as a result of the USSR loosening up regulations.

  • June 13, 1989

    Excerpts from the Opening Full Session of the Hungarian National Roundtable Negotiations

    Transcribed from previously unpublished video recordings, these discussions point to the unwritten "rules" of mutual civility that arose in the nonviolent dissident movements and found an echo among the Communist reformers during the negotiated revolutions of 1989. For example, Dr. Istvan Kukorelli from the Patriotic People’s Front proposes to "refrain from questioning the legitimacy of each other, since the legitimacy of all of us is debatable. It is a question which belongs to the future - who will be given credit by history and who will be forgotten."

  • June 26, 1989

    Memorandum of Conversation Foreign Ministers Alois Mock (Austria) and Gyula Horn (Hungary)

    Transcript of official visit between Foreign Minister Horn (Hungary) with Foreign Minister Mock (Austria). In it they discuss Western European integration including Hungary's participation, the Europe Free Trade Agreement, and Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. They continue with the development of Eastern Europe elaborating the developments with the Warsaw Pact, Hungarian/USSR relations, reforming Hungarian policy, and Austria's place in these changing times.

  • July 25, 1989

    Report of the President of Hungary Rezso Nyers and General Secretary Karoly Grosz on Talks with Gorbachev in Moscow (excerpts)

    President of People’s Republic of Hungary, Rezso Nyers, and General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, Karoly Grosz, report on their talks with Gorbachev in Moscow, 24-25 July, 1989. The excerpts contains economic reformer Nyers’ assessment of the political situation in Hungary, and first among the factors that "can defeat the party," he lists "the past, if we let ourselves [be] smeared with it." The memory of the revolution of 1956 and its bloody repression by the Soviets was Banquo’s ghost, destroying the legitimacy of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, just as 1968 in Prague and 1981’s martial law in Poland and all the other Communist "blank spots" of history came back in 1989 to crumble Communist ideology. For their part, the Communist reformers (including Gorbachev) did not quite know how to respond as events accelerated in 1989, except not to repeat 1956.

  • October 12, 1989

    Assessment Paper by the Austrian Foreign Ministry, '[Excerpt] Eastern Europe; General Assessment'

    The Assessment Paper outlines new change is Eastern Europe, mostly surrounding political and economic diversification, following Gorabachev's leadership in the USSR. The report then evaluates the GDR's economy, emigration, and anticipated political changes in light of the new geopolitical climate.