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Digital Archive International History Declassified

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  • March 04, 1961

    Cable from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 'Chairman Mao's Conversation with Cuban Women's Delegation and Ecuadorian Cultural Delegation'

    The Cuban women's and Ecuador cultural delegations questioned Mao Zedong's opinions on distinguishing the different categories of revolutions, such as the People's Revolution and Colonial Revolution; different approaches of revolutions, such as the Cuban Revolution versus Latin American revolution; and how to protect physical cultural resources.

  • August 22, 1961

    Hungarian Embassy in Havana, Report on Secret US Documents

    Chargé d’ affaires ad interim Miklós Vass reports on secret US State Department documents that Cuban Minister of Industry Ernesto “Che” Guevara acquired. The documents reveal US principles on Venezuelan economic policy and US positions on Latin American states and Latin American public opinion on Cuba. Vass advises that the secret documents be translated officially into Hungarian and sent to Hungarian embassies throughout Latin America. The document included three enclosures; Vass references two secret documents repeatedly.

  • December 27, 1961

    Meeting of the Planning Commission on Subjects Related to the VIII Consultation Meeting

    A collection of Brazilian ambassadors and ministers gather to meet and discuss the impact of Cuba-US relations on the region in preparation for a gathering of Organization of American States (OAS) foreign ministers scheduled for 22-31 January 1962. The government officials’ primary concerns are to manage the impact of the "Cuban problem" on domestic Brazilian politics and to develop an independent line of thought, without jeopardizing its relationship with the US. The officials want to craft an approach for the OAS meeting that will not cause Brazil to become a mediator between hostile parties nor incite Brazilian public opinion in favor of communism.

  • November 16, 1962

    Record of Conversation between Mikoyan and Ernesto 'Che' Guevara, Havana, 16 November 1962

    The conversation takes place soon after the IL-28 crisis, which gives Mikoyan a chance to patch up the relationship with trade agreements and promises of future aid and industrial cooperation. Near the end of the conversation, Guevara and Mikoyan discuss the theory of revolutionary struggle. Guevara shares his vision that “further development of the revolutions in Latin America must follow the line of simultaneous explosions in all countries.” Mikoyan cautions him, pointing to the Soviet experience and using the metaphor of the rebellion on the battleship “Potemkin.” Hinting at further disagreement ahead, he gently registers his disagreement with the Cuban leader’s drive to ignite revolution in the hemisphere.

  • March 02, 1963

    Letter to a Member of the Leadership of the Argentine Communist Party, Cde. Alcira de la Pena, from Argentine Friends in Cuba

    The development and distribution of socialist papers and materials between Cuba, Argentina, and other Latin American countries is discussed.

  • March 23, 1963

    From the Journal of A.I. Alekseyev, 'Record of a Conversation with Fidel Castro Ruz, Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba, 20 February 1963'

    Alekseyev describes a conversation with Fidel Castro regarding a warm letter from Khrushchev, the departure of Soviet servicemen from Cuba, and prospects for Cuba's relations with the US.

  • April 03, 1963

    From the Journal of A.I. Alekseyev, 'Record of a Conversation with Fidel Castro Ruz, Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba, 28 February 1963'

    Fidel Castro praises recent CPSU CC letters and a report that Soviet military equipment will remain in Cuba, and Alekseyev informs him of a tense interaction with the PRC ambassador and of an upcoming public report of the withdrawal of Soviet military specialists.

  • December 12, 1963

    Memorandum of Conversation, Vladimir Koucky, Secretary of Czechoslovak Communist Party (CPCz) Central Committee, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, Head of Cuba’s National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA), Prague

    The memorandum includes topics discussed between CPCz Secretary Vladimír Koucký and Cuban government official Carlos Rafael Rodríguez. Rodríguez lists points of misunderstanding between Cuba and other socialist countries. Discussion topics include Chinese publications in Cuba, Cuba's unique approach to socialist revolution, the proposed nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and building socialism under various conditions (e.g. Islam's role in Algeria), among others. Rodríguez encourages more communication among socialist nations to prevent misunderstanding.

  • December 10, 1964

    From the Diary of A. I. Alekseyev, Record of a Conversation with Argentinian Communist Party CC Secretary, Victorio Cadovilla, 25 November 1964

    Cadovilla informs Alekseyev about a conference of representatives of the Communist parties of Latin America, in which Cadovilla served as chairman. At the conference, each of the representatives discussed the revolutionary movement in their respective countries. Cuban representatives, Castro and Guevara, asked many questions and voiced their opinions regarding the movement, the USSR, China, and Latin American countries' role in the development of the Cuban revolution.

  • March 03, 1965

    Bulgarian Embassy, Havana (Kulbov), Information Regarding The Latin American Communist Parties’ Conference

    First Secretary of the Bulgarian Embassy to Cuba A. Hubenov describes a Latin American communist party conference held in Havana, November 1964. The parties secretly discussed their struggle against imperialism and the expansion of communist revolutions in Latin America and Cuba's assistance to that struggle. Conference deliberations included a discussion of the Sino-Soviet split and the fear of factions within the communist movement.

  • March 31, 1966

    Embassy, Havana, Report on the State of the Cuban Communist Party

    In a report on the Cuban Communist Party, Bulgarian Embassy counselor S. Cohen discusses strengths and concerns with the Cuban goverment. The Cuban revolutionary movement debunked the theory of geographically determined fatalism, but also displays a strong dependence on the Latin American liberation movement (e.g. Jose Mari, Simon Bolivar) for inspiration instead of socialist principles. Cohen reports negative developments including the Cuban government’s growing ambition to rule the Third World revolutionary movement and strong belief in the Cuban armed struggle as a template for all national liberation movements. The Cuban delegation strongly endorsed armed struggle as the only means of socialist advancement at the Tricontinental Conference recently held in Havana. Bulgaria must remain close with the Cuban government to help it develop economically and mature politically.

  • October 05, 1967

    Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo Meeting Regarding Bulgarian-Cuban Relations

    In a memorandum to the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party Politburo, Gero Grozev, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, critiques the Cuban Communist Party and its approach to building socialism. Grozev describes Cuba’s increasingly poor relations with European communist parties, interference in Latin American affairs, and misunderstanding of Marxist-Leninist principles. Grozev continues describing Cuban leaders as committed functionaries unaware of their mistakes. To correct Cuba’s mistakes socialist countries should increase contact with the Cuban government and help it develop economically and mature politically.

  • November 29, 1981

    Letter, Enrico Berlinguer to Hu Yaobang

    This document dated November 29, 1981 is the final version of a letter from Enrico Berlinguer to Hu Yaobang, President of the Chinese Communist Party, in which he invites his Chinese counterpart to contribute to finding a solution to the situation that has developed in Central and Latin America, especially with regard to US interference in these countries.